From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Haloarcula
Higher order taxa:
Archaea, Euryarchaeota, Halobacteria, Halobacteriales, Halobacteriaceae, Haloarcula
NCBI: Taxonomy Genome
Description and Significance
Haloarcula are extreme halophilic archaeons. They are distinguished from other genera in the Halobacteriaceae family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. There are currently seven recognized species in the genus: Haloarcula vallismortis, Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, Haloarcula japonica, Haloarcula argentinensis, Haloarcula mukohataei, and Haloarcula quadrata. Haloarcula quadrata was first isolated when researchers were attempting to culture Haloquadratum walsbyi, a haloarchaeon that was thought to be unculturable until 2004.
Cell Structure and Metabolism
Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments like salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils. Like other members of the Halobacteriaceae family, Haloarcula require at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but grow optimally in 2.0 to 4.5 M NaCl.
Toru MIZUKI, Masahiro KAMEKURA, Shiladitya DASSARMA, Tadamasa FUKUSHIMA, Ron USAMI, Yasuhiko YOSHIDA and Koki HORIKOSHI, “Ureases of Extreme Halophiles of the Genus Haloarcula with a Unique Structure of Gene Cluster”, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., Vol. 68, 397-406 (2004).
Oren et al. "Haloarcula quadrata sp. nov., a square, motile archaeon isolated from a brine pool in Sinai (Egypt)." International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 49.3 (1999): 1149-1155.