From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Methanopyrus
Higher order taxa:
Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Methanopyri; Methanopyrales; Methanopyraceae
Methanopyrus kandleri AV19
The genome of M. kandleri consists of a single circular chromosome with 1,694,969 bp. This organism is believed to have had little gene transfer with bacteria and encodes the core proteins that are conserved in other Euryarchaea. It also closely resembles other archaeal methanogens in relation to gene content and local gene order.
Cell Structure and Metabolism
M. kandleri is rod shaped, has a width of 0.5um and a length of 2-14um, and is a Gram-positive archaeon that grows chemolithoautotrophically. It has flagella that are found in polar tufts as well as a terpenoid lipid membrane, which is considered the most primitive lipid membrane, which retains a high intracellular concentration of a trivalent anion, cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. This anion has been found to confer activity and stability at high temperatures on enzymes found in the organism.
This organism grows at 80-100oC in an H2-CO2 atmosphere. Methanopyrus kandleri has been located at the base of a 2,000 m deep "black smoker" chimney on the sea floor in the Gulf of California.
Slesarev et al. 2002. The complete genome of hyperthermophile Methanopyrus kandleri AV19 and monophyly of archaeal methanogens. PNAS vol. 99 no. 7: 4644-4649.