Helicobacter cinaedi

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Classification

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Epsilon Proteobacteria; Campylobacterales; Helicobacteraceae

Helicobacter cinaedi

Transmission electron micrograph of ‘’H. cinaedi’’ illustrating their typical sheathed flagella [8].

Description and Significance

Helicobacter cinaedi was first isolated in 1984 in rectal swabs from male homosexuals, whom most were immunocompromised [1]. It has also been isolated from patients with enteritis and proctitis along with other species of its genus, such as H. fennelliae, H. pullorum,H. westmeadii, H. canadensis, and H. rappini [2]. Helicobacter cinaedi was initially identified as Campylobacter cinaedi, until 1991 due to molecular analysis [3]. It most commonly causes enteric and extraintestinal diseases [4].

Structure, Metabolism, and Life Cycle

Helicobacter cinaedi is a non-spore forming gram-negative bacterium. Like H. pylori, H. mustelae, and H. fennelliae, it has a G-C value between 35 to 40 mol%. It exhibits a darting motility by use of a single sheathed flagellum. Its fatty acid composition includes tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecenois acid [5]. Unlike Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter cinaedi does not produce urease [6].

Ecology and Pathogenesis

Helicobacter cinaedi is found normally in the intestinal flora of hamsters [7]. It can cause bacteraemia, diarrhea and focal colonic lesions in humans. Cellulitis and arthritis is seen in a high percentage of patients infected with Helicobacter cinaedi. It is seen to be resistant to ciprofloxacin but treatment with tetracycline and various aminoglycosides is successful [1].


References

[1] Fox, J. 2002. ‘’The non-H pylori helicobacters: their expanding role in gastrointestinal and systemic diseases’’. Gut. 50:273-83.

[2] Andersen, L. 2001. ‘’New Helicobacter species in humans’’. Digestive Diseases. 19:112-5.

[3] Vandamme, P., Falsen, E., Rossau, R., Hoste, B., Segers, P., Tytgat, R., and De Ley, J. 1991. "Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy - emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen-nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 41:88–103.

[4] Perez-Perez, G. and Blaser, M. 1996. ‘’Campylobacter and Helicobacter. In: Baron, S. Medical Microbiology. 4th Ed. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Brand at Galveston. Chapter 23.

[5] Han, Y., Smibert, R. and Krieg, N. 1989. ‘’Occurrence of Sheated Flagella in Campylobacter cinaedi and Campylobacter fennelliae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 39:488-490.

[6] Schauer, D. 2001. ‘’Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species’’. Helicobacter pylori: Physiology and Genetics. Washington (DC): ASM Press. Chapter 43.

[7] Gebhart, C., Fennell, C., Murtaugh, M., and Stamm, W. 1989. ‘’Campylobacter cinaedi Is Normal Intestinal Flora in Hamsters’’. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 27:1692-4.

[8] Hoist, H., Andersen, K., Blom, J., Hojlyng, N., Kemp, M., Krogfelt, K., and Christensen, J. 2008. ‘’A Case of Helicobacter cinaedi Bacteraemina in a Previously Healthy Person with Cellulitis’’. Open Microbiology Journal. 2:29-31.


Author

Page authored by Megan Twite, student of Mandy Brosnahan, Instructor at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, MICB 3301/3303: Biology of Microorganisms.