Vibrio halioticoli

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Classification

Figure 1. Many colored abalone shell. Abalone is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae. (Femorale, 2016)

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria; Phylum: Proteobacteria; Class: Gammaproteobacteria; Order: Vibrionales; Family: Vibrionaceae; Genus: Vibrio

Species

Vibrio halioticoli species IAM 14596

Description and significance

The Vibrio genus represents a large subgroup of Gammaproteobacteria, which are abundant and fast growers. These bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces and are found everywhere in marine and estuarine environments at high densities in fish, corals, shrimps, plankton, and mammals (Thompson, 2004; Reen, 2006; Froelich, 2013). Currently, the Vibrio genus contains more than 60 different species, although complete genome sequences are available for only 10. Several species are known to be pathogenic for humans, fishes, and marine invertebrates (Sawabe, 1998).

16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Information

Figure 2. Phylogenetic relationship of Vibrio halioticoli. (Sawabe, 1998)

 

The 16S rDNA sequences of strains Vibrio halioticoli A431(1), A611, A10I3), A11I2(2), were used. 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the isolate should be assigned to the genus Vibrio. After performing a standard nucleotide BLAST of Vibrio halioticoli, it was found that Vibrio neonatus was the closest related species at 99.44% (Sawabe, 1998).

Genome Structure (if the genome exists)

The total number of DNA bases is 4,013,925. The G+C content bases is 1,717,477 and the mol% is 42.79%. Vibrio halioticoli contains one 16S rRNA gene (Sawabe, 1998).

Cell structure and metabolism

Figure 3. Rod- shaped cells of Vibrio halioticoli. Scale is 0.6-0.8 micrometers in diameter and 1.7-2.0 micrometers long. 1. Negatively stained (a, b) and scanning electron (c, d) micrographs of Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596T. Cells cultured in ZoBell 2216E broth without (a, c) or with (b, d) 0±5% sodium alginate. Bars, 2 µm. (Sawabe, 1998)

Vibrio halioticoli is a non-flagellated, bacilli shaped bacterium. Vibrio halioticoli cells are rod-shaped, with rounded ends, and are 0.6-0.8 micrometers in diameter and 1.7-2.0 micrometers long when the organism is grown in ZoBell 2216E broth, but cells are spherical shaped 0.7-1.0 micrometers in diameter and 1.0-1.6 micrometers long when the organism is grown in ZoBell2216E broth containing alginate; the cells occur singly in the broth, or in irregular clusters, or chained in the broth containing alginate. No endospores or capsules are formed. Colonies on ZoBell 2216E agar are beige, circular, smooth and convex with entire edge. Sodium ion is essential for growth. Mesophilic and neutrophilic chemo-organotroph which grows at 15-30 degrees Celsius. No growth occurs at 40 degrees Celsius (Sawabe, 1998).

Ecology and Pathogenesis

The microorganism was isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Sawabe, 1998). Ecological interest stems from its interactions in the microbiota of the gut in marine herbivores (Sawabe, 1998).

References

Froelich B., Bowen J., Gonzalez R., Snedeker A., Noble R. (2013). Mechanistic and statistical models of total Vibrio abundance in the Neuse River Estuary. Water Res. 47, 5783–5793 10.1016/j.watres.2013.06.050

Femorale (2016) Retrieved from Femorale: http://www.femorale.com/shellphotos/detail.asp?species=Haliotis%20discus%20hannai%20Ino,%201953

Reen F. J., Almagro-Moreno S., Ussery D., Boyd E. F. (2006) The genomic code: inferring Vibrionaceae niche specialization. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4, 697–704 10.1038/nrmicro1476

Sawabe, T. (1998) Vibrio halioticoli spm nov., a non-motile alginolytic marine bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. Retrieved from http://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/ijsem/48/2/ijs-48-2-573.pdf?expires=1480703185&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=E793DF81D5CE7F64AE02024622CF2060

Sawabe, T. (1998) Vibrio Halioticoli spm nov., a non-motile alginolytic marine bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis Discus Hannai. Great Britan, 1998. Web. 30 Oct. 2016.

Thompson F. L., Iida T., Swings J. (2004) Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 403–431 table of content, 10.1128/MMBR.68.3.403-431.2004

Author

Page created by Brooks Jones, Dustin Erdek, and Joseph Hutchinson, students of Dr. Hidetoshi Urakawa, Florida Gulf Coast University.