Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV)

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
Jump to: navigation, search
This student page has not been curated.

Classification

Zaire Ebolavirus

Kingdom: (none)

Realm: Riboviria

Phylum: Negarnaviricota

Class: Monjiviricetes

Order: Mononegavirales

Family: Filoviridae

Genus: Ebolavirus

Species: Zaire Ebolavirus

NCBI: Taxonomy

Zaire Ebolavirus

Description and Significance

Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)is a pathogen that is a parasite to humans. Parasitism is an ecological relationship where one organism is benefitted while the other is harmed. This species of Ebola virus disease is also associated with the highest mortality rates (~20-90%)[1], with the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) being the next highest fatal.

Genome

EBOV is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. It contains an envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid.[2] The EBOV genome is about 19 kb in length and encodes for seven structural proteins.[3] The protein is assembled into a helical nucleocapsid, which then catalyzes the replication and transcription of the genome.[4] CpG is a dinucleotide sequence of 5’ to 3’ cytosine-guanine and is used in research for cancer and immunotherapy.[5]

Cell Structure, Metabolism and Life Cycle

Here is an image of the Zaire Ebolavirus Life Cycle: https://media.springernature.com/full/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41579-019-0233-2/MediaObjects/41579_2019_233_Fig1_HTML.png EBOV is an RNA virus that begins with limited coding capabilities and enters the host cell through interaction with the host’s cell surface T-immunoglobins.[6] After receptor binding, the EBOV is internalized via micropinocytosis and GP1 is cleaved into a smaller form before the residues in the binding sites are exposed.[7] Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, it hijacks the transcription and translation process to replicate the genome and produce new virions.[8] VP30 is a ribonucleoprotein that is an important mechanism in regulating transcription and translation during the EBOV replication cycle.[9] The virus spreads to the liver and spleen through the bloodstream and induces an active inflammatory response associated with hepatocellular necrosis and lymphopenia. EBOV then induces the release of chemokines that cause dysregulation of the immune system. [10] Released cytokines and necrosis factor-α from infected macrophages interrupt the flow of the vascular system and causes multiple organ failure.[11]

Ecology and Known Roles in Symbiosis

This microbe is potentially fatal along with being a parasite to humans. EBOV was discovered in 1976 during an outbreak in central and west Africa. The disease is usually endemic to the tropical climate in central Africa, but as recently as 2014, there have been confirmed cases in the U.S., Spain, Liberia, and other countries.[12] International tourism is making it more likely to spread the disease globally. A major danger of the disease is that it there are no known vaccines that can cure EBOV, but there are some drugs in the trial phases.

Fun Facts

EBOV is transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids and/or blood of an infected person.[13] It can be spread very easily through close contact with said infected persons. [14] EBOV is also a severe acute viral infection easily mistaken for other viral diseases like typhoid fever, cholera, hepatitis, etc.[15] In 2014, there were 11 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease in the U.S., with only two deaths as a result.[16] There is currently no vaccine for Ebola virus disease, and it is endemic to central Africa. Since there is no vaccine for the infection it is classified as a category A bioterrorism agent.[17]

References

Kadanali, A., & Karagoz, G. (2015). An overview of Ebola virus disease. Northern clinics of Istanbul, 2(1), 81–86. https://doi:10.14744/nci.2015.97269

Nanbo, A., Watanabe, S., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2013). The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells. Scientific reports, 3, 1206. https://doi:10.1038/srep01206

Khalafallah, M. T., Aboshady, O. A., Moawed, S. A., & Ramadan, M. S. (2017). Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge. Avicenna journal of medicine, 7(3), 96–102. doi:10.4103/ajm.AJM_150_16

MUSC Center for Global Health. (n.d.). http://globalhealth.musc.edu/blog/21-facts-about-ebola-virus-disease

2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html

Swetha, R. G., Ramaiah, S., Anbarasu, A., & Sekar, K. (2016). Ebolavirus Database: Gene and Protein Information Resource for Ebolaviruses. Advances in bioinformatics, 2016, 1673284. https://doi:10.1155/2016/1673284

Lai, K.Y., Ng, W.Y.G. & Cheng, F.F. Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus. Infect Dis Poverty 3, 43 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-9957-3-43


Author

This page was authored by Ariel Riley as part of the 2020 UM Study USA led by Dr. Erik Hom at the University of Mississippi.

  1. Kadanali, A., & Karagoz, G. (2015). An overview of Ebola virus disease. Northern clinics of Istanbul, 2(1), 81–86. https://doi:10.14744/nci.2015.97269
  2. Kadanali, A., & Karagoz, G. (2015). An overview of Ebola virus disease. Northern clinics of Istanbul, 2(1), 81–86. https://doi:10.14744/nci.2015.97269
  3. Nanbo, A., Watanabe, S., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2013). The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells. Scientific reports, 3, 1206. doi:10.1038/srep01206
  4. Nanbo, A., Watanabe, S., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2013). The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells. Scientific reports, 3, 1206. https://doi:10.1038/srep01206
  5. Swetha, R. G., Ramaiah, S., Anbarasu, A., & Sekar, K. (2016). Ebolavirus Database: Gene and Protein Information Resource for Ebolaviruses. Advances in bioinformatics, 2016, 1673284. https://doi:10.1155/2016/1673284
  6. Lai, K.Y., Ng, W.Y.G. & Cheng, F.F. Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus. Infect Dis Poverty 3, 43 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-9957-3-43
  7. Lai, K.Y., Ng, W.Y.G. & Cheng, F.F. Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus. Infect Dis Poverty 3, 43 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-9957-3-43
  8. Lai, K.Y., Ng, W.Y.G. & Cheng, F.F. Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus. Infect Dis Poverty 3, 43 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-9957-3-43
  9. Lai, K.Y., Ng, W.Y.G. & Cheng, F.F. Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus. Infect Dis Poverty 3, 43 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-9957-3-43
  10. Khalafallah, M. T., Aboshady, O. A., Moawed, S. A., & Ramadan, M. S. (2017). Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge. Avicenna journal of medicine, 7(3), 96–102. doi:10.4103/ajm.AJM_150_16
  11. Khalafallah, M. T., Aboshady, O. A., Moawed, S. A., & Ramadan, M. S. (2017). Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge. Avicenna journal of medicine, 7(3), 96–102. doi:10.4103/ajm.AJM_150_16
  12. Khalafallah, M. T., Aboshady, O. A., Moawed, S. A., & Ramadan, M. S. (2017). Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge. Avicenna journal of medicine, 7(3), 96–102. doi:10.4103/ajm.AJM_150_16
  13. MUSC Center for Global Health. (n.d.). http://globalhealth.musc.edu/blog/21-facts-about-ebola-virus-disease
  14. MUSC Center for Global Health. (n.d.). http://globalhealth.musc.edu/blog/21-facts-about-ebola-virus-disease
  15. MUSC Center for Global Health. (n.d.). http://globalhealth.musc.edu/blog/21-facts-about-ebola-virus-disease
  16. 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html
  17. 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html