Difference between revisions of "Anthrax in the United States"

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Gastrointestinal anthrax usually results from eating infected meat. The infection severely inflames the intestines, causing severe diarrhea and vomiting of blood, initially preceded by nausea, decreased appetite, and fever. If it goes untreated for long enough, toxaemia and shock will occur, leading to death. Gastrointestinal anthrax can also occur in the oropharyngeal – the symptoms then become a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and toxaemia. Even with treatment, about 50% of oropharyngeal anthrax infections are fatal.  
 
Gastrointestinal anthrax usually results from eating infected meat. The infection severely inflames the intestines, causing severe diarrhea and vomiting of blood, initially preceded by nausea, decreased appetite, and fever. If it goes untreated for long enough, toxaemia and shock will occur, leading to death. Gastrointestinal anthrax can also occur in the oropharyngeal – the symptoms then become a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and toxaemia. Even with treatment, about 50% of oropharyngeal anthrax infections are fatal.  
  
===Description of the microbe===
+
==Description of the microbe==
 
Include a link if there is an existing microbewiki page.
 
Include a link if there is an existing microbewiki page.
 
Ex. [[Salmonella typhi]]
 
Ex. [[Salmonella typhi]]
===Transmission of disease===
+
==Transmission of disease==
 
How is it transmitted?  Is there a vector (animal/insect)?
 
How is it transmitted?  Is there a vector (animal/insect)?
===Prevention===
+
==Prevention==
  
 
==Why is this disease a problem in [name of country]==
 
==Why is this disease a problem in [name of country]==

Revision as of 01:38, 26 August 2009

Introduction

Anthrax is a severe disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. It can infect both humans and animals (mostly in herbivorous mammals), and although human contact does not spread the disease, humans can get infected from touching or inhaling spores from contaminated animal products. Even eating rare meat from an infected animal is enough to cause anthrax. Symptoms will generally appear within 7 days after infection

Description of Anthrax

Anthrax is a severe disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. It can infect both humans and animals (mostly in herbivorous mammals), and although human contact does not spread the disease, humans can get infected from touching or inhaling spores from contaminated animal products. Even eating rare meat from an infected animal is enough to cause anthrax. Symptoms will generally appear within 7 days after infection. The infection can affect the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract.

Cutaneous Anthrax

The most common type of anthrax, cutaneous (skin) anthrax, happens when a person has a cut of some type on the skin, allowing the bacteria to enter. An itchy lesion usually forms at this site, but after 1-2 days, it turns into a vesicle, and later, an ulcer. The surrounding lymph nodes are may also be subject to swelling. The ulcer, generally 1-3cm in diameter, contains a black necrotic (dead) center and is typically painless. However, if left untreated, approximately 20% of cutaneous anthrax cases can lead to death.

Respiratory (Pulmonary) Anthrax

The most common type, cutaneous (skin) anthrax, happens when a person has a cut of some type on the skin, allowing the bacteria to enter. An itchy lesion usually forms at this site, but after 1-2 days, it turns into a vesicle, and later, an ulcer. The surrounding lymph nodes are may also be subject to swelling. The ulcer, generally 1-3cm in diameter, contains a black necrotic (dead) center and is typically painless. However, if left untreated, approximately 20% of cutaneous anthrax cases can lead to death.

Gastrointestinal Anthrax

Gastrointestinal anthrax usually results from eating infected meat. The infection severely inflames the intestines, causing severe diarrhea and vomiting of blood, initially preceded by nausea, decreased appetite, and fever. If it goes untreated for long enough, toxaemia and shock will occur, leading to death. Gastrointestinal anthrax can also occur in the oropharyngeal – the symptoms then become a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and toxaemia. Even with treatment, about 50% of oropharyngeal anthrax infections are fatal.

Description of the microbe

Include a link if there is an existing microbewiki page. Ex. Salmonella typhi

Transmission of disease

How is it transmitted? Is there a vector (animal/insect)?

Prevention

Why is this disease a problem in [name of country]

Do lifestyle/environment/economics/political issues play a role?

What is being done to address this problem

Include anything being done by the local government or groups as well as efforts by non-local groups.

What else could be done to address this problem

Are there solutions that could be successful but haven't been implemented due to political or economic reasons? Are there successful efforts in other countries? Are there reasons why these efforts may or may not be successful in the country you've focused on? etc. etc.

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by [insert your names here!], students of Rachel Larsen



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