Difference between revisions of "Azospirillum lipoferum"

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==Genome==
 
==Genome==
 
[[Image:Genome A.lipoferum.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Proportion of Ancestral (red) and horizontally transferred (blue) genes in A. lipoferum.]]
 
[[Image:Genome A.lipoferum.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Proportion of Ancestral (red) and horizontally transferred (blue) genes in A. lipoferum.]]
 +
Genome size of 6,846,400 bp<br>
 +
›GC content: 67.7%<br>
 +
›CDS of 6,094<br>
 +
›Contains 1 chromosome and several plasmids (range: 40-550 kbp)<br>
 +
›Many replicons with many being chromids (chromosome + plasmid)<br>
 +
›Shares many genes with aquatic species which might be explained by evolutionary transition from marine to terrestrial environments.<br>
 +
›Scientists suggests that the transition was possible due to horizontal gene transfer promoted by conjugation and transduction.<br>
  
 
==Economic Significance==  
 
==Economic Significance==  

Revision as of 20:09, 22 April 2014

Introduction

Azospirillum lipoferum, is a gram negative a-proteobacteria extensively studied due to its properties to influence plant growth, due to this symbiotic characteristic this bacteria is qualified as a Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). The organism was first described by Martinus Beijerinck who named it Spirillum lipoferum , in 1925. Later, the classification was revised by Tarrand et al. who renamed it Azospirillum lipoferum which means "small, fat bearing, spiral".

Classification

Transmission electron micrograph of Azospirillum lipoferum 4B grown in liquid culture. (F, polar flagellum; bar, 1 µm).Source: Alexandre et al. 1999, Applied Environmental Microbiology, 65, 7401.

Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Order: Rhodospirillales
Family: Rhodospirillaceae
Genus: Azospirillum
Species: Azospirillum lipoferum

Metabolism

Ecology

Colonization of rice root by A. lipoferum 4B labelled with EGFP, analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Source: UMR-CNRS 5557 Centre d’Ecologie Microbienne.

Azospirillum lipoferum colonizes root plants forming a ›symbiotic Relationship where the plant benefits through N2 fixation, phytohormones, and hormone balance. The association with A. lipoferum promotes the elongation of plant roots. ›Constant genome rearrangements promotes population diversity leading as a escape mechanism to bypass host defenses.

Genome

Proportion of Ancestral (red) and horizontally transferred (blue) genes in A. lipoferum.

Genome size of 6,846,400 bp
›GC content: 67.7%
›CDS of 6,094
›Contains 1 chromosome and several plasmids (range: 40-550 kbp)
›Many replicons with many being chromids (chromosome + plasmid)
›Shares many genes with aquatic species which might be explained by evolutionary transition from marine to terrestrial environments.
›Scientists suggests that the transition was possible due to horizontal gene transfer promoted by conjugation and transduction.

Economic Significance

Commercial inoculants

Reference

http://jast.modares.ac.ir/jufile?c2hvd1BERj0xMDQ5MSZfYWN0aW9uPXNob3dQREYmYXJ0aWNsZT0xMDQ5MSZfb2I9MmM3OWU1N2I4M2JmMGQwMjNjNmJiOWY3OGE2YjU0ZDEmZmlsZU5hbWU9ZnVsbF90ZXh0LnBkZiZyYj0x

http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/spip/-Azospirillum-lipoferum-.html

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/125/4/2053.full

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhizobacteria

http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes8(6)/1.pdf

http://www.bacterio.net/azospirillum.html

http://www.straininfo.net/taxa/308;jsessionid=B15A4846847631CCCC748BDC2391FB0A.straininfo2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=193

http://bacdive.dsmz.de/resultpdf.php?resultid=13982