Bacteroides salanitronis

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Classification

Higher order taxa

Cellular organisms; Bacteria; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Bacteroidia; Bacteriodales; Bacteriodaceae; Bacteroides

Species

Bacteroides salanitronis

Description and significance

Bacteriodes salanitronis are found in the cecum of chicken. They help in the breakdown of food and produce nutrients and energy that the chicken needs. It is a species of interest because it is believed that anaerobic microflora of the cecum benefits the host and may impact poultry farming. The microflora serves as a protector against the pathogenic microorganisms that the gut may come in contact with [1]. When Bacteriodes are found outside the guts, they can cause abscesses and other infections. It is unknown whether or not B. salanitronis can be found in humans, as BL78T is the only strain, however the genus Bacteriodes are commonly found within the human intestine [2].

Genome structure

The genome contains 4,308,663 bp long chromosomes with a G+C content of 47%. There are a total of 3,838 genes. Out of those genes, there is 101 RNA genes and 3,737 protein coding genes. There are also 96 pseudo genes. It consists of 4.24 Mbp chromosome and three plasmids [1].

Cell and colony structure

Bacteroides salanitronis are gram-negative rods that are anaerobic chemoorganotrophic, non-spore forming, and non-motile. Although B. salanitronis is non-motile, five genes that are generally associated with motility have been found in the genome. The rods are approximately .4-.7 um wide and .8-5.6 um long. They are found either singly or in pairs. The best growth temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. They can grow when bile is present. After 48 hours of growth on blood agar plates, colonies are seen. They are 2-3 mm in diameter and they are seen as white-greyish and are rounded and smooth. When tested for nitrate, Bacteroides salanitronis is not reduced to nitrate. Indole is not produced and it tested negative for catalase and urease. Gelatin does not turn to liquid [1].

Metabolism

Bacteriodes are involved in many metabolic activities in the human colon including fermentation of carbohydrates, utilization of nitrogenous substances, and biotransformation of bile acids and other steroids [2]. Most intestinal bacteria are saccharolytic. Saccharolytic means that they get carbon and energy by hydrolysis of carbohydrate molecules.

Ecology

Bacteriodes salantronis are found in the intestine of chicken. Gastro intestinal microbes such as the genus Bacteriodes are important because they are known to play a role in breaking down complex molecules into simple compounds. They also can convert steroids. Bacteriode species and other anaerobic bacteria aid their host to prevent colonization of the intestine by pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, these organisms generally have a favorable relationship with their host, only if they are kept within the gut [2].

Pathology

Although it is unknown the pathology of the specific species, the genus Bacteriodes often can cause infection when they escape from the gut. They can cause infection of the central nervous system, head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissue. They can cause diarrhea and abscesses. They have been seen in cases of meningitis and shunt infections.

References

[1]Gronow, S., Held, B., Lucas, S., Lapidus, A., Del Rio, T. G., Nolan, M., … Eisen, J. A. (2011). Complete genome sequence of Bacteroides salanitronis type strain (BL78T). Standards in Genomic Sciences, 4(2), 191–199. http://doi.org/10.4056/sigs.1704212

[2]Lan Pham Thi Ngoc, Sakamoto Mitsuo, Sakata Shinji, Benno Yoshimi (2006) Bacteroides barnesiae sp. nov., Bacteroides salanitronis sp. nov. and Bacteroides gallinarum sp. nov., isolated from chicken caecum, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 56, 2853–2859

Edited by Rebecca McElwain of Dr. Lisa R. Moore, University of Southern Maine, Department of Biological Sciences, http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio