a. Higher order taxa
Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus Include this section if your Wiki page focuses on a specific taxon/group of organisms
2. Description and significance
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why you think it is important.
- Include as many headings as are relevant to your microbe. Consider using the headings below, as they will allow readers to quickly locate specific information of major interest*
3. Genome structure
Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?
4. Cell structure
Interesting features of cell structure. Can be combined with “metabolic processes”
5. Metabolic processes
Describe important sources of energy, electrons, and carbon (i.e. trophy) for the organism/organisms you are focusing on, as well as important molecules it/they synthesize(s).
Campylobacter ureolyticus are oral and intestinal commensals of animals, which makes it hard to control infections caused by these microbes (6). Being unable to grow in number outside animal bodies, Campylobacter family serves as a sign of recent contamination with animal feces and exist widely in the environment, especially in water (7). In the river, Campylobacter species are found least in rural and fast-flowing region, while found most in regions near or downstream of sewage works (8). As an evidence of Campylobacter originated from animal feces, the number of Campylobacter increased when rainfall caused farmland water to flow into the river (8).
Campylobacter ureolyticus has been identified as a gastrointestinal pathogen (4). Being a gastrointestinal pathogen, C. ureolyticus is thought to be related to inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (13). When Crohn’s disease patients were analyzed, four Campylobacter species were isolated from the patients and one of them was C. ureolyticus, indicating an existence of a relationship between Crohn’s disease and C. ureolyticus (13). Recent studies also show that its incidence in gastrointestinal related illnesses may be related to other diseases in immunocompromised patients and diabetes patients (4). Campylobacter’s major transmission pathways to humans include poultry, water, and animals (5). The prevalence of Campylobacteriosis, a general term that describes infections caused by Campylobacter genus, has increased in the entire world for past years and the research indicates that Campylobacteriosis is endemic in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, especially in children (5). Campylobacteriosis usually accompanies symptoms of diarrhea since Campylobacter genus is a gastrointestinal pathogen (5).
Campylobacter species are found in higher concentration in a region with unpurified water than the region with purified water (7). Drinking purified water can reduce the chance of being infected by Campylobacter species. As the species of Campylobacter family are transmitted to humans by poultry, water and animals, being careful and sanitizing after contact with animals can reduce the chance of infection (5).
9. Current Research
Include information about how this microbe (or related microbes) are currently being studied and for what purpose (1) Vandamme P., Debruyne L., De Brandt E., & Falsen E. 2010. Reclassification of bacteroides ureolyticus as Campylobacter ureolyticus comb. nov., and emended description of the genus Campylobacter. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 2016–2022.
(2) Lui F., Ma R. N., Wang Y. M. , & Zhang L. 2018. The clinical importance of Campylobacter concisus and other human hosted Campylobacter species. Frontiers In Cellular And Infection Microbiology 8: 243.
(3) Bullman, S., Lucid, A., Corcoran, D., Sleator, R. D., & Lucey, B. 2013. Genomic Investigation into Strain Heterogeneity and Pathogenic Potential of the Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus. PLoS ONE, 8:e71515.
(4) O’Donovan, D., Corcoran, G. D., Lucey, B., & Sleator, R. D. 2014. Campylobacter ureolyticus:A portrait of the pathogen. Virulence, 5:498–506.
(5) Kaakush, N. O., Castano-Rodriguez, N., Mitchell, H. M., & Man, S. 2015. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28: 687-720.
(6) Lee, M. D., & Newell, D. G. 2006. Campylobacter in Poultry: Filling an Ecological Niche. Avian Diseases, 50: 1-9.
(7) Korhonen, L. K., & Martikalnon, P. J. 1991. Survival of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni in untreated and filtered lake water. Journal of Applied Microbiology,71: 379-382.
(8) Bolton, F. J., Coates, D., Hutchinson, D. N., & Godfree, A. F. 1987. A study of thermophilic campylobacters in a river system. Journal of Applied Microbiology,62:167-176.
(9)William M. G., Yee E., Stephen L.W., Leif A.P. & James B. L. 2015. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter Ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880. Genome Announcements, 3.
(10) Jose A.B., Kaakoush N. O., Raftery M.J., Mitchell H. M.2011.Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Ureolyticus. Infection and Immunity, 80: 883–890.
(11) Fang Liu, Hoyul Lee, Ruiting Lan and Li Zhang. 2016. Zonula occludens toxins and their prophages in Campylobacter species. Gut Pathog 8: 43
(12) Hatanaka et al. 2017. High Prevalence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in Stool Specimens of Children with Diarrhea in Japan. Infect. Dis., 70: 455–457
(13) Zhang, L., Man, S. M., Day, A. S., Leach, S. T., Lemberg, D. A., Dutt, S., . . . Mitchell, H. 2009. Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter Species Other than C. jejuni from Children with Crohn's Disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.