Difference between revisions of "Candida blankii"

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(6. Ecology)
(6. Ecology)
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Describe important sources of energy, electrons, and carbon (i.e. trophy) for the organism/organisms you are focusing on, as well as important molecules it/they synthesize(s).
 
Describe important sources of energy, electrons, and carbon (i.e. trophy) for the organism/organisms you are focusing on, as well as important molecules it/they synthesize(s).
 
=6. Ecology=
 
=6. Ecology=
C. blankii has been found mainly associated with the human respiratory system, where it acts as an obligate pathogen <ref name="two"> Al-Haqqan, A., Al-Sweih, N., Ahmad, S., Khan, S., Joseph, L., Varghese, S., & Khan, Z. 2018. Azole-resistant Candida blankii as a newly recognized cause of bloodstream infection. New Microbes and New Infections, 26: 25-29. </ref>  <ref name="three"> Nobrega de Almeida, J., Campos, S. V., Thomaz, D. Y., Thomaz, L., de Almeida, R. K. G., Del Negro, G. M. B., … Benard, G. (2018). Candida blankii: an emergent opportunistic yeast with reduced susceptibility to antifungals. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 7, 24. </ref> Before associating with humans, C. blankii originated in the organs of mink.3 In these organisms, C. blankii had devastating effects and in all cases observed, caused death. C. blankii also forms symbiotic relationships with other organisms; the main example explored was discovered in India between pollinating bees, A. indica, and C. blankii.4 In this symbiotic relationship, C. blankii is found on the nectary glands of the flower, A. indica, that bees pollinate. This relationship is not fully understood yet; however, it has been shown that A. indica flowers more in the presence of C. blankii <ref> Sandhu, D. K & Waraich, M. K. (1985). Yeasts Associated with Pollinating Bees and Flower Nectar. Microbial Ecology. 11:51-58. </ref>
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C. blankii has been found mainly associated with the human respiratory system, where it acts as an obligate pathogen <ref name="two"> Al-Haqqan, A., Al-Sweih, N., Ahmad, S., Khan, S., Joseph, L., Varghese, S., & Khan, Z. 2018. Azole-resistant Candida blankii as a newly recognized cause of bloodstream infection. New Microbes and New Infections, 26: 25-29. </ref>  <ref name="three"> Nobrega de Almeida, J., Campos, S. V., Thomaz, D. Y., Thomaz, L., de Almeida, R. K. G., Del Negro, G. M. B., … Benard, G. (2018). Candida blankii: an emergent opportunistic yeast with reduced susceptibility to antifungals. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 7, 24. </ref> Before associating with humans, C. blankii originated in the organs of mink.3 In these organisms, C. blankii had devastating effects and in all cases observed, caused death. C. blankii also forms symbiotic relationships with other organisms; the main example explored was discovered in India between pollinating bees, A. indica, and C. blankii <ref name="four"> Sandhu, D. K & Waraich, M. K. (1985). Yeasts Associated with Pollinating Bees and Flower Nectar. Microbial Ecology. 11:51-58. </ref>. In this symbiotic relationship, C. blankii is found on the nectary glands of the flower, A. indica, that bees pollinate. This relationship is not fully understood yet; however, it has been shown that A. indica flowers more in the presence of C. blankii <ref name="four"> Sandhu, D. K & Waraich, M. K. (1985). Yeasts Associated with Pollinating Bees and Flower Nectar. Microbial Ecology. 11:51-58. </ref>
  
 
=7. Pathology=
 
=7. Pathology=

Revision as of 01:18, 28 November 2018

This student page has not been curated.

1. Classification

a. Higher order taxa

Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
Class Saccharomycetes
Order Saccharomycetales
Family Saccharomycetaceae
Genus Candida
Species blankii

[1]

2. Description and significance

Candida blankii is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that has infected at least three patients worldwide as of 2018 [2] [3]. The patients who have been infected with C. blankii are adolescents with cystic fibrosis and one preterm neonate with respiratory difficulties [2] [3]. Once infected with C. blankii, patients develop C. blankii fungaemia, a blood condition characterized by the presence of fungi populations in the circulatory system [2]. This condition can be problematic, since immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients are most susceptible and the C. blankii population is resistant to azole antibacterial medications [2]. Doctors in Brazil have identified polyene antifungals as a potential treatment for C. blankii fungaemia [3]. Although C. blankii is a newly identified pathogenic threat to persons with respiratory issues, it is thought that there may have been some missed cases due to insufficient diagnosis techniques in previous years [2].

3. Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?

4. Cell structure

Interesting features of cell structure. Can be combined with “metabolic processes”

5. Metabolic processes

Describe important sources of energy, electrons, and carbon (i.e. trophy) for the organism/organisms you are focusing on, as well as important molecules it/they synthesize(s).

6. Ecology

C. blankii has been found mainly associated with the human respiratory system, where it acts as an obligate pathogen [2] [3] Before associating with humans, C. blankii originated in the organs of mink.3 In these organisms, C. blankii had devastating effects and in all cases observed, caused death. C. blankii also forms symbiotic relationships with other organisms; the main example explored was discovered in India between pollinating bees, A. indica, and C. blankii [4]. In this symbiotic relationship, C. blankii is found on the nectary glands of the flower, A. indica, that bees pollinate. This relationship is not fully understood yet; however, it has been shown that A. indica flowers more in the presence of C. blankii [4]

7. Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

8. Current Research

Include information about how this microbe (or related microbes) are currently being studied and for what purpose

9. References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=45524
  2. Al-Haqqan, A., Al-Sweih, N., Ahmad, S., Khan, S., Joseph, L., Varghese, S., & Khan, Z. 2018. Azole-resistant Candida blankii as a newly recognized cause of bloodstream infection. New Microbes and New Infections, 26: 25-29.
  3. Nobrega de Almeida, J., Campos, S. V., Thomaz, D. Y., Thomaz, L., de Almeida, R. K. G., Del Negro, G. M. B., … Benard, G. (2018). Candida blankii: an emergent opportunistic yeast with reduced susceptibility to antifungals. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 7, 24.
  4. Sandhu, D. K & Waraich, M. K. (1985). Yeasts Associated with Pollinating Bees and Flower Nectar. Microbial Ecology. 11:51-58.
  5. Arlyapov, B. Kamanin, S. Ponamoreva, O. Reshetilov, A. 2012. Biosensor analyzer for BOD index express control on the basis of the yeast microorganisms Candida maltosa, Candida blankii, and Debaryomyces hansenii. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 50, 215-220.
  6. Tzvetkova, B., Hristozova, T., Angelov, A., and Paskaleva, D. 2004. Effect of furfural on the growth of lactose-utilizing Candida Blankii 35. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20(3): 219-223
  7. K. Tsekova, A. Kaimaktchiev & A. Krumov (1999) Production of Fumaric Acid from n-Alcanes by Candida Blankii NA-83, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 13:2, 24-26.
    1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=45524
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Al-Haqqan, A., Al-Sweih, N., Ahmad, S., Khan, S., Joseph, L., Varghese, S., & Khan, Z. 2018. Azole-resistant Candida blankii as a newly recognized cause of bloodstream infection. New Microbes and New Infections, 26: 25-29.
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Nobrega de Almeida, J., Campos, S. V., Thomaz, D. Y., Thomaz, L., de Almeida, R. K. G., Del Negro, G. M. B., … Benard, G. (2018). Candida blankii: an emergent opportunistic yeast with reduced susceptibility to antifungals. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 7, 24.
    4. 4.0 4.1 Sandhu, D. K & Waraich, M. K. (1985). Yeasts Associated with Pollinating Bees and Flower Nectar. Microbial Ecology. 11:51-58.