Difference between revisions of "Canine Distemper Virus: Wildlife Conservation Implications"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 1: Line 1:
 
==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a viral pathogen that is commonly known for its ability to infect domestic dogs, though it affects many other species. This single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belongs to the <i>Paramyxoviridae</i> family and the genus <i>Morbillivirus</i> [1]. CDV is highly contagious, spreading through aerosol droplets and bodily fluids. Generally, the virus initially replicates in the respiratory tract where it enters the blood stream and spreads to lymphoid, nervous, and epithelial tissues [2]. While symptoms depend on the host species as well as the strain and severity of the virus, CDV often causes fever, ocular discharge, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, paralysis, and the thickening of feet pads [3]. Although much research on this virus concentrates on its relationship to domestic dogs, CDV affects many mammal families such as Canidae (domestic and wild canids), Ursidae (bears), Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, etc.), and Felidae (wild cats), to name a few [4]. Due to the wide range of potential hosts and the easy transmission pathway from domestic dogs to wildlife, CDV poses a significant threat to the conservation efforts of many threatened mammals. This report attempts to summarize current research on CDV as well as provide insight on how the virus affects wildlife, particularly, the conservation of threatened species.  
+
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a viral pathogen that is commonly known for its ability to infect domestic dogs, though it affects many other species. This single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belongs to the <i>Paramyxoviridae</i> family and the genus <i>Morbillivirus</i> [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC85712/ 1]. CDV is highly contagious, spreading through aerosol droplets and bodily fluids. Generally, the virus initially replicates in the respiratory tract where it enters the blood stream and spreads to lymphoid, nervous, and epithelial tissues [2]. While symptoms depend on the host species as well as the strain and severity of the virus, CDV often causes fever, ocular discharge, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, paralysis, and the thickening of feet pads [3]. Although much research on this virus concentrates on its relationship to domestic dogs, CDV affects many mammal families such as Canidae (domestic and wild canids), Ursidae (bears), Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, etc.), and Felidae (wild cats), to name a few [4]. Due to the wide range of potential hosts and the easy transmission pathway from domestic dogs to wildlife, CDV poses a significant threat to the conservation efforts of many threatened mammals. This report attempts to summarize current research on CDV as well as provide insight on how the virus affects wildlife, particularly, the conservation of threatened species.  
  
  

Revision as of 04:35, 2 April 2018

Introduction

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a viral pathogen that is commonly known for its ability to infect domestic dogs, though it affects many other species. This single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and the genus Morbillivirus 1. CDV is highly contagious, spreading through aerosol droplets and bodily fluids. Generally, the virus initially replicates in the respiratory tract where it enters the blood stream and spreads to lymphoid, nervous, and epithelial tissues [2]. While symptoms depend on the host species as well as the strain and severity of the virus, CDV often causes fever, ocular discharge, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, paralysis, and the thickening of feet pads [3]. Although much research on this virus concentrates on its relationship to domestic dogs, CDV affects many mammal families such as Canidae (domestic and wild canids), Ursidae (bears), Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, etc.), and Felidae (wild cats), to name a few [4]. Due to the wide range of potential hosts and the easy transmission pathway from domestic dogs to wildlife, CDV poses a significant threat to the conservation efforts of many threatened mammals. This report attempts to summarize current research on CDV as well as provide insight on how the virus affects wildlife, particularly, the conservation of threatened species.




Genome


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Ecology and Transmission


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Signs and Symptoms


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Prevention and Treatment


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.


Effect on Wildlife Conservation


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.


References

[1] Frisk, A.L., König, M., Moritz, A., Baumgärtner, W. (1999). Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(11), 3634-3643.

[2] Expression of canine distemper virus receptor nectin-4 in the central nervous system of dogs. Scientific Reports, 7(349), 1-9. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-00375-6

[3] V. Martella, F. Cirone, G. Elia, E. Lorusso, N. Decaro, M. Campolo, C. Desario, M.S. Lucente, A.L. Bellacicco, M. Blixenkrone-Møller, L.E. Carmichael, C. Buonavoglia. (2006). Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology, 116(4), 301-309. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.019

[4] Yuan, C., Liu, W., Wang, Y., Hou, J., Zhang, L., & Wang, G. (2017). Homologous recombination is a force in the evolution of canine distemper virus. PLoS ONE, 12(4), 1-16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175416

Edited by student of Joan Slonczewski for BIOL 238 Microbiology, 2018, Kenyon College.