a. Higher order taxa
Higher Order Taxa: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; Clostridium
Species: Clostridium tagluense
2. Description and significance
Clostridium tagluense is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacteria that was first isolated from the permafrost of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in 2009 . C. tagluense belongs to the loosely defined genus of Clostridium, which is comprised of over one hundred species that are highly diverse both phenotypically and taxonomically . C. tagluense is involved in ‘blown pack’ spoilage (BPS) of vacuum packaged beef [4,5]. C. tagluense can survive under extreme conditions, including temperatures from -40 to 10 degrees Celsius, and it can also form spores, making its growth difficult to control . Due to these properties, C. tagluense contamination of meat processing plants can be potentially disruptive to food and meat packing industries, as it is highly resilient and is known to cause meat spoilage . Also, due to its psychrotolerant nature and strict anaerobic metabolism, C. tagluense is proposed to have potential in industrial applications that involve synthesis of compounds at low-temperatures and production of biofuels .
3. Genome structure
Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?
4. Cell structure
Interesting features of cell structure. Can be combined with “metabolic processes”
5. Metabolic processes
Describe important sources of energy, electrons, and carbon (i.e. trophy) for the organism/organisms you are focusing on, as well as important molecules it/they synthesize(s). =6. Ecology and Pathology Clostridium tagluense is a psychrotolerant bacteria that grows in a temperature range from 0-28 degrees Celsius [2.]] . The microbe creates spherical endospores that allow it to withstand temperatures below freezing. C. tagluense has an optimal pH of 6.5-7.2 and an optimal NaCl concentration of 0-2% [2.]] . It is an obligate anaerobe that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen. These properties allow C. tagluense to reside in vacuum-sealed, frozen meat products and deep within permafrost [2.]] .
C. tagluense is not known to cause any human infections. Its main impact on human life lies in its ability to infect meat products. The microbe is known to cause blown-pack spoilage of vacuum-sealed and frozen meat [10.]] . This type of spoilage is unlikely to cause disease in humans because meat with this spoilage is typically disposed of before consumption [11.]] .
Strains of C. tagluense have been isolated from spoilage juices from beef and samples of lamb femur bones [4.]] [10.]] . The meat spoilage caused by C. tagluense can lead to legal and economic problems for the meat industry [11.]] . C. tagluense spores have been found to survive treatment by peroxyacetic acid and the vacuum-sealing and cooling processes of meat packing [12.]] . The best method to stop the growth of C. tagluense found is to lower the pH of its environment below levels it can withstand [4.]] .
8. Current Research
Include information about how this microbe (or related microbes) are currently being studied and for what purpose
[1.] Taxonomy Browser - Clostridium Tagluense. Retrieved October 20, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=360422
[2.] Suetin, S. V., Shcherbakova, V. A., Chuvilskaya, N. A., Rivkina, E. M., Suzina, N. E., Lysenko, A. M., & Gilichinsky, D. A. (2009). Clostridium tagluense sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium from permafrost. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 59(6): 1421-1426.
[3.] Udaondo, Z., Duque, E., Ramos J. L. (2017). The pangenome of the genus Clostridium. Environmental Microbiology. 19(7): 2588-2603.
[4.] Yang, X., & Badoni, M. (2013). Substrate utilization during incubation in meat juice medium psychrotolerant clostridia associated with blown pack spoilage. Food Microbiology, 34(2): 400-405.
[5.] Yang, X., Youssef M. K., Gill C. O., Badoni M., Lopez-Campos O. (2014). Effects of meat pH on growth of 11 species of psychrotolerant clostridia on vacuum packaged beef and blown pack spoilage of the product. Food Microbiology. 39: 13-18.
[6.] Kumar, M., Gayen, K., (2011) Developments in biobutanol production: New Insights. Applied Energy. 88(6): 1999-2012.
[7.] Finegold, S. M., Song, Y., Liu, C. (2002) Taxonomy—General Comments and Update on Taxonomy of Clostridia and Anaerobic cocci. Anaerobe. 8(5): 283-285.
[8.] Collins, M. D., Lawson, P. A., Willems, A., Cordoba, J. J., Fernandez-Garayzabal, J., Garcia, P., Cai, J., Hippe, H., Farrow, J. A. E. & other authors (1994). The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combinations. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 44: 812–826.
[9.] Shcherbakova, V., Troshina, O. (2018). Biotechnological perspectives of microorganisms isolated from the Polar Regions. Microbiology Australia. Retrieved from http://microbiology.publish.csiro.au/?paper=MA18042.
[10.] Brightwell, G., & Horváth, K. M. (2018). Molecular discrimination of New Zealand sourced meat spoilage associated psychrotolerant Clostridium species by ARDRA and its comparison with 16s RNA gene sequencing. Meat Science 138: 23-27.
[11.] Dorn-In, S., Schwaiger, K., Springer, C., Barta, L., Ulrich, S., Gareis, M. (2018). Development of a Multiplex qPCR for the Species Identification of Clostridium Estertheticum, C. Frigoriphilum, C. Bowmanii and C. Tagluense-like from Blown Pack Spoilage (BPS) Meats and from Wild Boars. International Journal of Food Microbiology 286: 162–169.
[12.] Cavill, L., Roneteriea-Monterrubio, A., Helps, C., Corry, J. (2011). Detection of cold-tolerant clostridia other than Clostridium estertheticum in raw vacuum-packed chill-stored meat. Food Microbiology 5(28): 957-963.