Difference between revisions of "Clostridium difficile"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
 
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{{biorealm genus}}
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{{Biorealm Genus}}
  
 
==Classification==
 
==Classification==
Gram-negative oral spirochete
 
  
 
===Higher order taxa===
 
===Higher order taxa===
  
Domain:Spirochaetes,
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Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/ NCBI] link to find]
Phylum: Bacteria,
 
Class: Inside series of Bacteria,
 
Order:,
 
Family: Treponema
 
 
 
 
 
Bacteria; Spirochaetes; Spirochaetales; Spirochaetaceae; Treponema.
 
 
 
Strains:
 
Treponema denticola strain ATCC 35405.
 
 
 
(there may be additional subcategories included as well. You can just copy this information from the NCBI taxonomy page)
 
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
 
 
===Genus===
 
 
 
 
 
Genus species: ''Treponema denticola''
 
 
 
  
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===Species===
  
 
{|
 
{|
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'''NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Tree&id=2&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy]'''
 
'''NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Tree&id=2&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy]'''
 
|}
 
|}
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Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
+
''Genus species''
  
 
==Description and significance==
 
==Description and significance==
 
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced.  Describe how and where it was isolated.
 
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced.  Describe how and where it was isolated.
 
Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
 
Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
 
''Treponema denticola'' is a motile, slender, helically shaped flexible organism. It is made up of a periplasmic flagella wound around the helical protoplasmic cylinder and encased in an outer sheath. It's habitat is anaerobic and host-associated. It grows at an optimal temperature of 30-42°C, with a pH of 6.5-8.0. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, specifically in subgingival dental plaque, and it is often associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal disease results in inflammation of the gum tissue, bone resorbtion, and subsequent tooth loss. Periodontal disease has now become a major concern in dentistry and 80% of adults in the USA are estimated to have had periodontal disease at some point in their lives.
 
The complete genome of T. denticola strain 35405 was sequenced by using the random shotgun method described for genomes sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research and it was designated as the type strain by Chan et al.
 
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==
 
Describe the size and content of the genome.  How many chromosomes?  Circular or linear?  Other interesting features?  What is known about its sequence?
 
Describe the size and content of the genome.  How many chromosomes?  Circular or linear?  Other interesting features?  What is known about its sequence?
 
Does it have any plasmids?  Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?
 
Does it have any plasmids?  Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?
 
 
Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 has a complete genome. It is made up of dsDNA and 1 chromosome. It is circular and the length is 2,843,201 nucleotides. The GC content is 37%. It has 2838 genes.
 
Replicon Type: chromosome.
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==
 
Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
 
Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
 
The genome reveals factors mediating coaggregation, cell signaling, and stress protection. It has a spiral shape and is arranged in singles. It is a mobile organism but does not contain any endospores. Motility is by rapid rotation around the long axis, flexation of the cell and locomotion along a helical path. The most distinctive property is the presence of periplasmic flagella wound around the helical protoplasmic cylinder and encased in an outer sheath.
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Ecology==
 
==Ecology==
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==Pathology==
 
==Pathology==
''Treponema denticola'' is a bacterial pathogen and plant plastid. It causes periodontal disease and gum inflammation.
 
 
 
 
How does this organism cause disease?  Human, animal, plant hosts?  Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
 
How does this organism cause disease?  Human, animal, plant hosts?  Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Application to Biotechnology==
 
==Application to Biotechnology==
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==References==
 
==References==
example:
+
[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/2/489 Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "''Palaeococcus ferrophilus'' gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology''. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.]
 
 
[http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/14/8298 Glockner, F. O., M. Kube, M. Bauer, H. Teeling, T. Lombardot, W. Ludwig, D. Gade, A. Beck, K Borzym, K Heitmann, R. Rabus, H. Schlesner, R. Amann, and R. Reinhardt. 2003. "Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete ''Pirellula'' sp. strain 1."'' Proceedings of the National Acedemy of Sciences'', vol. 100, no. 14. (8298-8303)]
 
 
 
  
 
Edited by student of [mailto:ralarsen@ucsd.edu Rachel Larsen] and Kit Pogliano
 
Edited by student of [mailto:ralarsen@ucsd.edu Rachel Larsen] and Kit Pogliano

Revision as of 16:04, 3 May 2007

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Clostridium difficile

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]

Species

NCBI: Taxonomy

Genus species

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano