Clostridium difficile

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Clostridium difficile


Gram-positive anaerobe

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Clostridia Order: Clostridiales Family: Clostridiaceae [Others may be used. Use [1] link to find]


NCBI: Taxonomy

Clostridium difficile

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them. C. difficile is found everywhere in nature like in water, air, human and animal feces, on most surfaces (especially in hospitals) and most prevalently in soil. C. difficile shows optimum growth when at human body temperature. C. difficile appears as long drumsticks with a bulge at each end. C. difficile was first isolated by Hall and O’Toole from the meconium and feces of newborn infants. It is important enough to have its genome sequenced because it provides a better tool for preventing and controlling infection. The genome also reveals clues as to how the pathogen thrives in the GI tract and why some strains are so much more virulent than others. The genome of C. difficile can also explain their antimicrobial resistance and allow for quicker detection and better treatment options. In addition, it allows scientists to correlate different toxins and genes and their disease-causing ability.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.


Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.


How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required


[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano