In general, new antibiotics are needed to address the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance. Infections with Gram negative bacteria are particularly challenging to treat. The cellular structure of Gram negative bacteria prevents penetration by many antibiotics and renders many Gram negative pathogens intrinsically antibiotic resistant (Zgurskaya, H. I., Löpez, C. A., & Gnanakaran, S. 2015.) Previously, very few antibiotics have been identified that specifically target Gram negative bacteria. Polymyxin is one example, which functions by disrupting the cell membranes of Gram negative bacteria, destroying their ability to function as osmotic barriers. Rising antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria has threatened the available antibiotics and has highlighted the urgency to discover new antibiotics that specifically target Gram negative pathogens. Therefore, the discovery of Darobactin was of high interest in the medical and biotechnology fields due to the potential implications for the treatment of life threatening infections with Gram negative pathogens.
How was the antibiotic discovered? What organism produces it?
Discuss the chemical structure of the antibiotic molecule and what is known about the biochemical pathway by which it is produced.
Mode of action
Describe what is known about the mechanism of action of the antibiotic.
Summarize key points and future research.
[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.