Deep sea fish
Description of Niche
While the concept of deep sea fish may be a bit variable in terms of the depth they inhabit, it is usually understood that deep sea fishes are those living in the bathypelagic, abyssopelagic and demersal zone. Bathypelagic species, such as the angler fishes, inhabit the deeper part of the pelagic zone, lives from from 1,000 m down to around 4,000 m, while abyssopelagic species live from 4,000 m down to above the ocean floor. Demersal species occupy the bottom of the ocean floor and are divided into benthic and benthopelagic species. Benthic fishes are those that spend most of their time on the bottom such as the rays and flatfishes, while benthopelgic fishes are those that swim habitually near the ocean floor such as the squalid sharks (family Squalidae) and smoothheads (family Alepocephalidae).
The conditions of the deep sea are extreme and the species inhabiting the area are challenged with adapting to these conditions. The most challenging is perhaps the high hydrostatic pressure. For each 10m increase in depth, the pressure increases by 1atm (~0.101MPa). The average pressure below 1000m is near 380atm while the maximum may reach up to 1100atm. In addition to the high pressure, the temperature in deep sea is very low, typically in the range of 2-4°C. Lack of sunlight is another condition these animals are challenged with affecting their vision as well as the photosynthetic production below ~100m. Due to these extreme conditions, the deep sea species are expected to possess well adapted biochemical systems. Also, for the same reason, the bacteria that inhabit the organs of these species are mostly extremophiles such as barophiles and psychrophiles.
Influence of adjacent communities?
Hydrothermal vent is one community that may influence deep sea fishes. Although the water temperatures of hydrothermal vents are near 400°C, this area is very productive biologically hosting communities such as chemosynthetic archaea. Because of its high temperature and toxicity of its fluid, deep sea fishes adapted to the cold temperature may not survive around this community.
One of the most fascinating characteristics of deep sea fish is their ability to luminesce under certain conditions. Bioluminescence is essentially the ability of organisms to emit a glowing, visible light. It occurs almost everywhere, but is most prevalent in oceans, sometimes exhibiting the “milky sea” effect, where a large group of bioluminescent bacteria can glow in large proportions, even able to be seen via satellite. Furthermore, in the oceans, bioluminescence is often found in both shallow water and deep water, but it is most common in the upper 1000 m of the pelagic habitat, with 14 marine phyla exhibiting bioluminescence. The deep water fish evolved to be able to utilize light producing microbes to cope with the harsh conditions of their environment. They have developed a symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria, with specialized organs that provide bioluminescent bacteria with sufficient food and a safe place to live. In return, fish can use the bacteria to emit a light to aid in camouflage, hunting, and attracting mates. On a larger scale, luminescent bacteria have even provided for strategies for treating cystic fibrosis and preventing antibiotic resistant bacteria infections.
As mentioned above, bioluminescent bacteria and deep sea fish maintain a symbiotic relationship to give the fish a source of light. Bioluminescent bacteria are classified in the genera Vibrio and Photomicrobium, and look like curved rods usually 1-3 microns long, with a motile flagella. They survive in seawater, fish digestive tracts, the outside of decaying fish, and their symbiotic relationship is most commonly found in angler fish, flashlight fish, and the bobtail squid.
Biochemistry and Quorum Sensing
How do they make light?
FMNH2 + O2 + RCHO --> FMN + RCOOH + H2O + Light
This reaction involves the oxidation of substrate luciferin in the presence of an catalytic enzyme luciferase. LuxA and LuxB catalyze the luciferase reaction, using oxygen and a reduced flavin mononucleotide to oxidize a long chain aldehyde RCHO. It results in the production of light and and inactive oxyluciferin, ATP used as energy to produce more luciferin. Sometimes luciferin and luciferase are bound together in a single molecule called “photoprotein”, which can be triggered by calcium ions to produce light. Most of the energy produced is emitted as light rather than heat, and the creation of light occurs only when organisms are present in high cell densities.
Quorum sensing is the cell to cell communication that takes place in this light production process, and quorum is the minimum number of cells required in order to take an action between cells. Therefore quorum sensing allows the bacteria to regulate gene expression according to the density of a certain cell around it. It allows for the prevention of premature initiation of a process, and does not allow the cell to take action until it reaches the confidence factor. The molecule that is accumulated and sensed is an autoinducer, LuxI in bioluminescent bacteria, and it is excreted by the cell into the medium, where it accumulates until it reaches the minimum concentration. Once at the threshold concentration, it diffuses back into the cell, binding to the regulatory molecule LuxR. This new complex activates transcription of the luciferase gene, resulting in a luminescence.
Three kinds of single celled marine organisms produce light: bacteria, dinoflagellates, radiolarians, all with different luciferins. Individual bacteria do not luminesce; in order for a glowing effect, there needs a large group of luminescent bacteria, because luciferase production turned on only when the accumulation in the environment reaches a critical concentration of an autoinducer released by the bacteria. Though luminescent bacteria are also found freely flowing in the ocean, they more commonly found as symbionts in the light organs of fish
Use by fish
Many species of fish use luminescent bacteria as symbionts as their source of light: shallow water species utilize bacteria better in warm temperature conditions, while deep sea fish bacteria are better accustomed to cold temperatures. Most of these fish have photophores that open into the gut, and their symbionts are extracellular. Deep sea anglerfishes however, have photophores that open to the sea water via pores. Because bacteria perpetually grow, the photophores must be occluded in order to turn off the luminescence. Most fish synthesize their own luciferin, and a few must take it in their diet. Almost all produce a blue light, and some produce both blue and red