Difference between revisions of "Deep subsurface microbes"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
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Deep subsurface microbes first came into question when the American geologist Edson S. Bastin questioned why samples of water extracted from oil fields contained hydrogen sulfide and bicarbonates.  Armed with the knowledge that certain species of bacteria can derive energy from reducing sulfur compounds in the absence of oxygen, he concluded that there must be populations of these bacteria living in the underground oil reserves, degrading the organic components of oil as a carbon source, and reducing sulfur compounds for energy.  By 1926, Bastin and his colleague, Frank E. Greer has cultured sulfur reducing bacteria from samples taken from the groundwater of an oil deposit several hundred meters below the surface.  Bastin and Greer's initial deduction was that the bacteria were the ancestors of those buried up to 300 million years ago when the organic materials constituting the oil deposit were buried.   
 
Deep subsurface microbes first came into question when the American geologist Edson S. Bastin questioned why samples of water extracted from oil fields contained hydrogen sulfide and bicarbonates.  Armed with the knowledge that certain species of bacteria can derive energy from reducing sulfur compounds in the absence of oxygen, he concluded that there must be populations of these bacteria living in the underground oil reserves, degrading the organic components of oil as a carbon source, and reducing sulfur compounds for energy.  By 1926, Bastin and his colleague, Frank E. Greer has cultured sulfur reducing bacteria from samples taken from the groundwater of an oil deposit several hundred meters below the surface.  Bastin and Greer's initial deduction was that the bacteria were the ancestors of those buried up to 300 million years ago when the organic materials constituting the oil deposit were buried.   
  
The deeps subsurface ecosystem begins at about 50m below the surface of earths crust, and extends variably downward, up to 2.8km (1.7mi).  The organisms live within the flooded pore space within the rocks and live by reducing inorganic compounds found in the rock. With such a surprising diversity of organisms in such an extreme environment, the deep subsurface has been the subject of many studies in the recent years.   
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The deeps subsurface ecosystem begins at about 50m below the surface of earths crust, and extends variably downward, up to 2.8km (1.7mi)[1].  The organisms live within the flooded pore space within the rocks and live by reducing inorganic compounds found in the rock.
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With such a surprising diversity of organisms in such an extreme environment, the deep subsurface has been the subject of many studies in the recent years.  They carry out processes that alter the chemical makeup of minerals, degrade pollutants, and alter the mineral content of ground water.  Studies are being done to search for deep subsurface microbes that produce antibiotics and heat stable enzymes, and for those that assist in the degredation of toxic substances.
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Perhaps the most incredible thing about the microbes found in the deep subsurface, is that the majority of the populations can thrive indefinitely without any input from the earth's surface[1].  That being said, they are effectively 100% disconnected from the rest of life as we know it.
  
 
==Physical environment==
 
==Physical environment==
Describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment, using as many sections/subsections as you require. If it is appropriate, you can divide the physical and chemical attributes of the environment into separate sections. Look at other topics available in MicrobeWiki. Which involve processes similar to yours? Create links where relevant.
 
  
===Subsection 1===
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====Subsection 1a====
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===Physical Factors===
====Subsection 1b====
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===Subsection 2===
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===Chemical Factors====
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===Marine Subsurface===
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====Basaltic Rock====
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====Sedimentary Rock====
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===Continental Subsurface===
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====Granitic Rock====
  
  
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[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/2/489 Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "''Palaeococcus ferrophilus'' gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology''. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.]
 
[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/2/489 Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "''Palaeococcus ferrophilus'' gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology''. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.]
  
http://wvlc.uwaterloo.ca/biology447/modules/module6/Scientific_American_Article_Microbes.htm Fredrickson, J., Onstott, T. "Microbes Deep Inside the Earth." "Scientific American". 1996.  
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[1]http://wvlc.uwaterloo.ca/biology447/modules/module6/Scientific_American_Article_Microbes.htm Fredrickson, J., Onstott, T. "Microbes Deep Inside the Earth." "Scientific American". 1996.  
  
Amend, J. P., & Teske, A. (2005). Expanding frontiers in deep subsurface microbiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219(1-2), 131-155. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018204005954
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[2]Amend, J. P., & Teske, A. (2005). Expanding frontiers in deep subsurface microbiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219(1-2), 131-155. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018204005954
 
Edited by <your name>, a student of Angela Kent at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
 
Edited by <your name>, a student of Angela Kent at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  
  
 
<!-- Do not edit or remove this line -->[[Category:Pages edited by students of Angela Kent at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]]
 
<!-- Do not edit or remove this line -->[[Category:Pages edited by students of Angela Kent at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]]

Revision as of 02:21, 6 April 2011

This student page has not been curated.

Introduction

Electron micrograph of the Ebola Zaire virus. This was the first photo ever taken of the virus, on 10/13/1976. By Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, then at the CDC.


At right is a sample image insertion. It works for any image uploaded anywhere to MicrobeWiki. The insertion code consists of:
Double brackets: [[
Filename: PHIL_1181_lores.jpg
Thumbnail status: |thumb|
Pixel size: |300px|
Placement on page: |right|
Legend/credit: Electron micrograph of the Ebola Zaire virus. This was the first photo ever taken of the virus, on 10/13/1976. By Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, then at the CDC.
Closed double brackets: ]]

Other examples:
Bold
Italic
Subscript: H2O
Superscript: Fe3+

This template gives you a general idea of the layout of your page. You are not completely restricted to this format, so feel free to try out different things. I'll give you feedback as you work on your pages. Make sure to copy the "code" of this page to your own page before editing. -Prof Kent

In the introduction, briefly describe the habitat that is the topic of this page. Introduce the habitat, its ecological significance, and the importance of microorganisms in this environment. (What processes do they carry out? What functions do they perform?)

Microbes have found a way to exist in every corner of the planet, and humans have found ways to utilize their incredible diversity for thousands of years. From fermenting cheese and wine, to the production of pharmaceuticals, microbes have been utilized for a myriad of reasons. It was not until the late 1920's however, that scientists thought to look deep within the body of our earth itself for a new source of potential biodiversity.

Deep subsurface microbes first came into question when the American geologist Edson S. Bastin questioned why samples of water extracted from oil fields contained hydrogen sulfide and bicarbonates. Armed with the knowledge that certain species of bacteria can derive energy from reducing sulfur compounds in the absence of oxygen, he concluded that there must be populations of these bacteria living in the underground oil reserves, degrading the organic components of oil as a carbon source, and reducing sulfur compounds for energy. By 1926, Bastin and his colleague, Frank E. Greer has cultured sulfur reducing bacteria from samples taken from the groundwater of an oil deposit several hundred meters below the surface. Bastin and Greer's initial deduction was that the bacteria were the ancestors of those buried up to 300 million years ago when the organic materials constituting the oil deposit were buried.

The deeps subsurface ecosystem begins at about 50m below the surface of earths crust, and extends variably downward, up to 2.8km (1.7mi)[1]. The organisms live within the flooded pore space within the rocks and live by reducing inorganic compounds found in the rock. With such a surprising diversity of organisms in such an extreme environment, the deep subsurface has been the subject of many studies in the recent years. They carry out processes that alter the chemical makeup of minerals, degrade pollutants, and alter the mineral content of ground water. Studies are being done to search for deep subsurface microbes that produce antibiotics and heat stable enzymes, and for those that assist in the degredation of toxic substances.

Perhaps the most incredible thing about the microbes found in the deep subsurface, is that the majority of the populations can thrive indefinitely without any input from the earth's surface[1]. That being said, they are effectively 100% disconnected from the rest of life as we know it.

Physical environment

Physical Factors

Chemical Factors=

Marine Subsurface

Basaltic Rock

Sedimentary Rock

Continental Subsurface

Granitic Rock

Microbial communities

What kind of microbes do we typically find in this environment? Or associated with important processes in this environment? Describe key groups of microbes that we find in this environment, and any special adaptations they may have evolved to survive in this environment. List examples of specific microbes that represent key groups or are associated with important processes found in this environment. Link to other MicrobeWiki pages where possible.

Are there important biological interactions that are important in this environment? Do these interactions influence microbial populations and their activities? How do these interactions influence other organisms? Describe biological interactions that might take place in this environment, using as many sections/subsections as you require. Look at other topics available in MicrobeWiki. Create links where relevant.

Subsection 1

Subsection 1a

Subsection 1b

Subsection 2

Microbial processes

What microbial processes define this environment? Describe microbial processes that are important in this habitat, adding sections/subsections as needed. Look at other topics in MicrobeWiki. Are some of these processes already described? Create links where relevant.

Subsection 1

Subsection 1a

Subsection 1b

Subsection 2

Current Research

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

[1]http://wvlc.uwaterloo.ca/biology447/modules/module6/Scientific_American_Article_Microbes.htm Fredrickson, J., Onstott, T. "Microbes Deep Inside the Earth." "Scientific American". 1996.

[2]Amend, J. P., & Teske, A. (2005). Expanding frontiers in deep subsurface microbiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219(1-2), 131-155. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031018204005954 Edited by <your name>, a student of Angela Kent at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.