A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Gramella forsetii
Higher order taxa
Kingdom: Bacteria; Group: Bacteroidetes; Phylum: formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides(CFB)
Description and significance
This specie was first found and isolated from concentrated seawater collected in the German Bight of the North Sea during a phytoplankton bloom. They represent significant part of free-living microbial assemblages in nutrient-rich microenvironments. Organisms of this group are significant in that they specialize in degradation of high molecular weight compounds in both the dissolved and particulate fraction of the marine organic matter pool. Thus, they hold a major role of Bacteroidetes in the marine carbon cycle.
'Gramella forsetii' KT0803. Size: 3.8 Mb; Chromosome: 1, Circular
Analysis of the genomes reveal a substantial suite of genes that encode hydrolytic enzymes. They are a predicted preference for polymeric carbon sources and a distinct capability for surface adhesion.
Cell structure and metabolism
This marine Bacteroidetes has a gram negative like outer structure as well as a rod shape appearance. Because they are found on macroscopic organic matter particles (marine snow), their metabolism pertains to a non-halophilic, aerobic, and mesophilic environment. Specialized genes encoding for hydrolytic enzymes reveals adaptations to degradation of polymeric organic matter.
This organism is found in seawater on organic matter particles. Their abundance and distribution pattern reveal their capability to live in diverse and nutrient-rich microenvironments. Their contributions to the environment are dedicated to the marine carbon cycle.
Related organisms that are also in the Group Bacteroidetes may include many important periodontal pathogens.
Application to Biotechnology
Despite a lack of comprehensive molecular data on this organism, we can be sure that they encode a series of genes that produce enzymes which serve in the process of degradation of organic matter.
Members of the Bacteroidetes, formerly known as the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum, are among the major taxa of marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton frequently found on macroscopic organic matter particles (marine snow). In addition, they have been shown to also represent a significant part of free-living microbial assemblages in nutrient-rich microenvironments. Their abundance and distribution pattern in combination with enzymatic activity studies has led to the notion that organisms of this group are specialists for degradation of high molecular weight compounds in both the dissolved and particulate fraction of the marine organic matter pool, implying a major role of Bacteroidetes in the marine carbon cycle. Despite their ecological importance, comprehensive molecular data on organisms of this group have been scarce so far. Here we report on the first whole genome analysis of a marine Bacteroidetes representative, 'Gramella forsetii' KT0803. Functional analysis of the predicted proteome disclosed several traits which in joint consideration suggest a clear adaptation of this marine Bacteroidetes representative to the degradation of high molecular weight organic matter, such as a substantial suite of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, a predicted preference for polymeric carbon sources and a distinct capability for surface adhesion.
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
Bauer, M. Kube, M., Teeling, H., Richter, M., Lombardot, T., Allers, E., Wurdemann, C.A., Quast, C., Kuhl, H., Knaust, F., Woebken, D., Bischof, K., Mussmann, M., Choudhuri, J.V., Meyer, F., Reinhardt, R., Amann, R.I., and Glockner, F.O. "Whole genome analysis of the marine Bacteroidetes 'Gramella forsetii' reveals adaptations to degradation of polymeric organic matter." Environ. Microbiol. (2006) 8:2201-2213. Published online 4 October 2006.
[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.
Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano