Gramella forsetii

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Gramella forsetii

Classification

Higher order taxa

Kingdom: Bacteria; Group: Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi; Phylum: formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides(CFB)

Species

Gramella genus

Description and significance

This species was isolated from concentrated seawater collected from the German Bight in the North Sea, during a phytoplankton bloom. They are found on macroscopic organic matter particles (marine snow). They have been shown to represent significant part of free-living microbial assemblages in nutrient-rich microenvironments. Their abundance and distribution pattern in combination with enzymatic activity studies has led to the notion that organisms of this group are specialists for degradation of high molecular weight compounds in both the dissolved and particulate fraction of the marine organic matter pool, implying a major role of Bacteroidetes in the marine carbon cycle.

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.

Genome structure

'Gramella forsetii' KT0803.

Size: 3 Mb; Chromosome: 1

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Cell Structure: Gram Negative Shape: Rod Environment: Non-halophilic, Aerobic, Multiple Habitat, Mesophilic

Functional analysis of the predicted proteome disclosed several traits which in joint consideration suggest a clear adaptation of this marine Bacteroidetes representative to the degradation of high molecular weight organic matter, such as a substantial suite of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, a predicted preference for polymeric carbon sources and a distinct capability for surface adhesion.

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Whole genome analysis of the marine Bacteroidetes'Gramella forsetii' reveals adaptations to degradation of polymeric organic matter.

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Their ability to degrade high molecular weight compounds in both the dissolved and particulate fraction of the marine organic matter pool proves Bacteroidetes' contribution in the marine carbon cycle.


Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

Bauer, M. Kube, M., Teeling, H., Richter, M., Lombardot, T., Allers, E., Wurdemann, C.A., Quast, C., Kuhl, H., Knaust, F., Woebken, D., Bischof, K., Mussmann, M., Choudhuri, J.V., Meyer, F., Reinhardt, R., Amann, R.I., and Glockner, F.O. "Whole genome analysis of the marine Bacteroidetes 'Gramella forsetii' reveals adaptations to degradation of polymeric organic matter." Environ. Microbiol. (2006) 8:2201-2213. Published online 4 October 2006.


[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano