Halobacterium sp. NRC-1
A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Halobacterium sp. NRC-1
Higher order taxa
Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Halobacteria; Halobacteriales; Halobacteriaceae; Halobacterium; Halobacterium sp. NRC-1
Description and significance
Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is an exceptionally halophilic archaeon that has given us much insight on elemental cellular processes common to all life forms because of its extreme lifestyle. Because Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 can be easily cultured and is genetically well-behaved, studies of genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatics as well as archaea in general have been helpful during its research in laboratories. Its genome sequence has also been completed in the year of 2000 helping to give research on DNA replication and repair systems, phototrophic, anaerobic, as well as lateral gene transfer over time.
Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 or strain ATCC 700922 is adapted to grow under extreme high salinity conditions. This mesophilic microbe is depicted as a Gram negative, rod shaped into a single arrangement. It has a size of 2 Mb, consisting of 1 chromosome and 2 plasmids. They have no endospores, therefore prone to ultraviolet and gamma rays, temperature and starvation. Its motility consists of tufts of polar flagella and intracellular gas vesicles that are used for buoyancy. Its optimal growth temperature is known to be 42ºC, with NaCl optimum of 4.3 M.
The complete sequence of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 harbors 2,571,010 bp (base pairs) containing 91 insertion sequences on behalf of 12 families. These are organized into a fairly large chromosome and 2 related minichromosomes-- pNRC100 (200 kb) and pNRC200 (365,425 bp). These two plasmids are mostly responsible for the 91 insertion sequences. The Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome codes for about 2,630 proteins. Studies of the genome sequence depict pathways for uptake and use of amino acids, active sodium-proton antiporter and potassium uptake systems, as well as photosensory and signal transduction pathways and DNA replication, transcription/translation systems.
Cell structure and metabolism
Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.
How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
Application to Biotechnology
Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.
Edited by Sung-Hee Hong, a student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano