Higher order taxa:
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Oceanospirillales; Halomonadaceae
H. alimentaria; H. alkantarctica; H. almeriensis; H. anticariensis; H. aquamarina; H. axialensis; H. boliviensis; H. campaniensis; H. campisalis; H. cupida; H. desiderata; H. elongata; H. eurihalina; H. glaciei; H. halmophila; H. halocynthiae; H. halodenitrificans; H. halodurans; H. halophila; H. hydrothermalis; H. koreensis; H. magadiensis; H. marisflavi; H. maura; H. meridiana; H. muralis; H. neptunia; H. nitritophilus; H. organivorans; H. pacifica; H. pantelleriensis; H. salina; H. subglaciescola; H. sulfidaeris; H. taeanensis; H. variabilis; H. ventosae; H. venusta; Halovibrio denitrificans; Halomonas sp.
Description and Significance
Halomonas bacteria strains are halophiles, requiring high NaCl for growth. They are highly versatile in terms of their ability to successfully grow in a variety of temperature and pH conditions. This versatility may eventually lead to Halomonas species being used as a substitute for the utilization of starch-derived raw materials (Quillaguamán).
Cell Structure and Metabolism
Halomonas are Gram-negative rod-shaped cells that are usually unpigmented or yellow-tinted in color. Some of the fatty acids in Halomonas species include C(18:1)omega7c, C(16:0), and C(19:0) cyclo omega8c. They are also traditionally extreme halophiles with full motile capabilities because they are either polarly or laterally flagellated (Lee).
Without the presence of nitrate, they are capable of anaerobic growth with the aid of glucose. In addition, some Halomonas species have been documented as being able to perform denitrification to gain energy through the processing of nitrate to nitrogen (Cann).
Because Halomonas species are typically halophiles, they are usually found in water sources with high salinity levels, such as the Dead Sea and even within the frigid waters of Antarctica. However, some halophile strains (such as one with characteristics similar to that of Halomonas campisalis) have been documented to grow productively without the presence of NaCl (Ramano). Halomonascan also inhabit deep-sea sediment, deep-sea waters affected by hydrothermal plumes, and hydrothermal vent fluids (Okamoto).
Lee JC, Jeon CO, Lim JM, Lee SM, Lee JM, Song SM, Park DJ, Li WJ, Kim CJ. "Halomonas taeanensis sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern in Korea." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Sep;55(Pt 5):2027-32.
Okamoto T.; Maruyama A.; Imura S.; Takeyama H.; Naganuma T. "Comparative Phylogenetic Analyses of Halomonas variabilis and Related Organisms Based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and ectBC Gene Sequences." Systematic and Applied Microbiology, Volume 27, Number 3, 1 March 2004, pp. 323-333(11)
Quillaguamán, J., S. Hashim, F. Bento, B. Mattiasson, and R. Hatti-Kaul. 2005."Poly(ß-hydroxybutyrate) production by a moderate halophile, Halomonas boliviensis LC1 using starch hydrolysate as substrate." Journal of Applied Microbiology. Jul 2005. Vol. 99(1) 151
Romano I, Giordano A, Lama L, Nicolaus B, Gambacorta A. "Halomonas campaniensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a mineral pool of Campania Region, Italy." Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005 Sep;28(7):610-8.