Difference between revisions of "Infanticide in Primates"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 2: Line 2:
 
THIS IS A PAGE BY MEHERET OURGESSA <br> <br>
 
THIS IS A PAGE BY MEHERET OURGESSA <br> <br>
  
<b> Infanticide (in animals) </b> generally refers to the killing of an infant or a young offspring by an adult or mature individual of the same species and is observed in a variety of species ranging from humans to microscopic rotifers and especially in primates. Both males and females can be the perpetrators of infanticide in animals and both parents (filial infanticide) and non-parent individuals have been observed to display the behavior. Filial infanticide, which can be accompanied by cannibalism (filial cannibalism), is widespread in fishes and is also seen in terrestrial animals. It has been estimated that infanticide occurs in 25% of all mammals and, in some of these populations, infanticide is a major contributor to infant mortality.<ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-science-infanticide/infanticide-common-among-adult-males-in-many-mammal-species-idUSKCN0IX2BA20141113 "Infanticide common among adult males in many mammal species" REUTERS] </ref><br><br>
+
<b> Infanticide (in animals) </b> generally refers to the killing of an infant or a young offspring by an adult or mature individual of the same species and is observed in a variety of species ranging from humans to microscopic rotifers and especially in primates. Both males and females can be the perpetrators of infanticide in animals and both parents (filial infanticide) and non-parent individuals have been observed to display the behavior. Filial infanticide, which can be accompanied by cannibalism (filial cannibalism), is widespread in fishes and is also seen in terrestrial animals. It has been estimated that infanticide occurs in 25% of all mammals and, in some of these populations, infanticide is a major contributor to infant mortality.<ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-science-infanticide/infanticide-common-among-adult-males-in-many-mammal-species-idUSKCN0IX2BA20141113 "Infanticide common among adult males in many mammal species." Reuters. November 13, 2014.] </ref><br><br>
 
Male infanticide occurs most frequently in social species, less frequently in solitary species and least frequently in monogamous species.<ref>[https://science-sciencemag-org.libproxy.kenyon.edu/content/346/6211/841, Lukas, D. and Huchard E. "The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies." 2014. Science 346:6211.]</ref> Although previously considered pathological and maladaptive and attributed to environmental conditions such as overcrowding and captivity (2), there are currently several explanations for the evolution of infanticide in non-human primate communities such as resource competition, sexual competition, and exploitation. Many primates such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, baboon, and langur have been known to practice infanticide while others, such as the orangutan, bonobo and mouse lemur don’t (Reuters).
 
Male infanticide occurs most frequently in social species, less frequently in solitary species and least frequently in monogamous species.<ref>[https://science-sciencemag-org.libproxy.kenyon.edu/content/346/6211/841, Lukas, D. and Huchard E. "The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies." 2014. Science 346:6211.]</ref> Although previously considered pathological and maladaptive and attributed to environmental conditions such as overcrowding and captivity (2), there are currently several explanations for the evolution of infanticide in non-human primate communities such as resource competition, sexual competition, and exploitation. Many primates such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, baboon, and langur have been known to practice infanticide while others, such as the orangutan, bonobo and mouse lemur don’t (Reuters).
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>

Revision as of 21:28, 4 December 2019

Introduction

THIS IS A PAGE BY MEHERET OURGESSA

Infanticide (in animals) generally refers to the killing of an infant or a young offspring by an adult or mature individual of the same species and is observed in a variety of species ranging from humans to microscopic rotifers and especially in primates. Both males and females can be the perpetrators of infanticide in animals and both parents (filial infanticide) and non-parent individuals have been observed to display the behavior. Filial infanticide, which can be accompanied by cannibalism (filial cannibalism), is widespread in fishes and is also seen in terrestrial animals. It has been estimated that infanticide occurs in 25% of all mammals and, in some of these populations, infanticide is a major contributor to infant mortality.[1]

Male infanticide occurs most frequently in social species, less frequently in solitary species and least frequently in monogamous species.[2] Although previously considered pathological and maladaptive and attributed to environmental conditions such as overcrowding and captivity (2), there are currently several explanations for the evolution of infanticide in non-human primate communities such as resource competition, sexual competition, and exploitation. Many primates such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, baboon, and langur have been known to practice infanticide while others, such as the orangutan, bonobo and mouse lemur don’t (Reuters).


At right is a sample image insertion. It works for any image uploaded anywhere to MicrobeWiki. The insertion code consists of:
Double brackets: [[
Filename: PHIL_1181_lores.jpg
Thumbnail status: |thumb|
Pixel size: |300px|
Placement on page: |right|
Legend/credit: Electron micrograph of the Ebola Zaire virus. This was the first photo ever taken of the virus, on 10/13/1976. By Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, then at the CDC.
Closed double brackets: ]]

Other examples:
Bold
Italic
Subscript: H2O
Superscript: Fe3+




Section 1 Genetics

Include some current research, with at least one image.

Sample citations: [3] [4]

A citation code consists of a hyperlinked reference within "ref" begin and end codes.

Male infanticide has been reported for about half of all species in our sample (open circles) and seems to have evolved independently multiple times. It mostly occurs in social species (dark gray branches), less in solitary species (light gray branches), and least in monogamous species (black branches). Animal drawings are from phylopic.org.

Section 2 Microbiome

Include some current research, with a second image.

Conclusion

Overall text length should be at least 1,000 words (before counting references), with at least 2 images. Include at least 5 references under Reference section.


References


Edited by MEHERET OURGESSA, student of Joan Slonczewski for BIOL 116 Information in Living Systems, 2019, Kenyon College.