Difference between revisions of "Korarchaeum cryptofilum"

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==Genetics and Structure==
 
==Genetics and Structure==
  
<br> <i>Korarchaeum cryptofilum</i> is an ultrathin filamentous<ref name="Barns">[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430366/?tool=pmcentrez&report=abstract Barns, S M et al. “Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 93,17 (1996): 9188-93. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.17.9188</ref> heterotroph, mostly living through anaerobic metabolism of peptide and amino acids. The organism uses enzymes such as peptidase, transaminases, and ATPase. <ref name="Nealson />
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<br> <i>Korarchaeum cryptofilum</i> is an ultrathin filamentous<ref name="Barns">[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430366/?tool=pmcentrez&report=abstract Barns, S M et al. “Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 93,17 (1996): 9188-93. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.17.9188</ref> autotroph, mostly living through anaerobic metabolism of peptide fermentation and protein broken to H_2. The organism uses enzymes such as peptidase, transaminases, and ATPase. <ref name="Nealson />  
 
The genome of <i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum is 1,590,757 base pairs long with an average G+C content of 49%. The arCOG of the archaean phyla crenarchaeota and euryarchaeota when compared with the sequenced genome of <i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum, showed that the organism shares its replication, recombination, repair, and cell division genes with that of <i>crenarchaeota</i> while it shares most of its transcription and translation genes with <i>euryarcahaeota</i>.  
 
The genome of <i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum is 1,590,757 base pairs long with an average G+C content of 49%. The arCOG of the archaean phyla crenarchaeota and euryarchaeota when compared with the sequenced genome of <i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum, showed that the organism shares its replication, recombination, repair, and cell division genes with that of <i>crenarchaeota</i> while it shares most of its transcription and translation genes with <i>euryarcahaeota</i>.  
<ref name=Miller-Coleman>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3344838/> Miller-Coleman, Robin L et al. “Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.” PloS one vol. 7,5 (2012): e35964. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035964]</ref>
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<ref name=Miller-Coleman>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3344838/> Miller-Coleman, Robin L et al. “Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.” PloS one vol. 7,5 (2012): e35964. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035964]</ref> The unusual similarity to Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the archaeons genome suggest its genome has "retained features that represent an ancestral archaeal form, existing before the occurence of the evolutionary bifurcation into Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota"<ref name="Herrick>Baltscheffsky, H. & Persson, B. J Mol Evol (2014) 78: 140</ref>.
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<br>
 
<br>
 
<i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum has three rRNA genes (16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA). The organism has shown to produce 33 23S r-proteins and 27 16S r-proteins on its rRNA operon. The species is also found to have 45 tRNA genes on its genome with one initiator and 45 elongator tRNAs.<ref name=Miller-Coleman/><ref>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430366/?Elkins, James G et al. “A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 105,23 (2008): 8102-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801980105]</ref>
 
<i>Ca.</i> K. cryptofilum has three rRNA genes (16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA). The organism has shown to produce 33 23S r-proteins and 27 16S r-proteins on its rRNA operon. The species is also found to have 45 tRNA genes on its genome with one initiator and 45 elongator tRNAs.<ref name=Miller-Coleman/><ref>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430366/?Elkins, James G et al. “A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 105,23 (2008): 8102-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801980105]</ref>
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==Microbiome==
 
==Microbiome==
The Microbiome of  
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The Microbiome of <i> Candidatus</i> Korarchaeum cryptofilum is extreme compared to humans. The archaeon is found
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Include some current research, with a second image.<br><br>  
 
Include some current research, with a second image.<br><br>  
 
The population of the <i>Korachaeota</i> is generally minute in its microbiome  living in the biome. However in some cases they constitute 7% of all Archaea.<ref>[http://web.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.kenyon.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=644f27fc-0fae-4646-8be1-1e8ac0adc257%40pdc-v-sessmgr05&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=48092345&db=eih Reigstad, Laila Johanne, et al. “Diversity and Abundance of Korarchaeota in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Iceland and Kamchatka.” ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology, vol. 4, no. 3, Mar. 2010, pp. 346–356. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.126.]</ref>  
 
The population of the <i>Korachaeota</i> is generally minute in its microbiome  living in the biome. However in some cases they constitute 7% of all Archaea.<ref>[http://web.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.kenyon.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=644f27fc-0fae-4646-8be1-1e8ac0adc257%40pdc-v-sessmgr05&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=48092345&db=eih Reigstad, Laila Johanne, et al. “Diversity and Abundance of Korarchaeota in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Iceland and Kamchatka.” ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology, vol. 4, no. 3, Mar. 2010, pp. 346–356. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.126.]</ref>  

Revision as of 01:24, 5 December 2019

Introduction

Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum is a species of the proposed phylum Korarchaeota, or Xenarchaeota of the Archaea. The phylum is notoriously difficult to study given the environment in which it lives.[1] The Archean phylum is found mainly in hydrothermal environments such as hot springs, shallow water, and deep ocean. The organism's genome has mainly been studied to open understanding of Archaean evolution due to its distant detachment on the Archaea phyla.

Ca. K. cryptofilum. Notice rod shape of the Archaea. https://sites.google.com/site/chskorarchaeota1


Discovery

The phylum Korarchaeota was only recently discovered in 1996 by a team studying Archaea in hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park. By sequencing the ribosomal RNA of many uncultivated archaeans found in a hot spring, two outlying sequences were found. The two outlying sequences were used as evidence for the proposal of a new phylum "Korarchaeota"[2]




Genetics and Structure


Korarchaeum cryptofilum is an ultrathin filamentous[2] autotroph, mostly living through anaerobic metabolism of peptide fermentation and protein broken to H_2. The organism uses enzymes such as peptidase, transaminases, and ATPase. [1] The genome of Ca. K. cryptofilum is 1,590,757 base pairs long with an average G+C content of 49%. The arCOG of the archaean phyla crenarchaeota and euryarchaeota when compared with the sequenced genome of Ca. K. cryptofilum, showed that the organism shares its replication, recombination, repair, and cell division genes with that of crenarchaeota while it shares most of its transcription and translation genes with euryarcahaeota. [3] The unusual similarity to Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the archaeons genome suggest its genome has "retained features that represent an ancestral archaeal form, existing before the occurence of the evolutionary bifurcation into Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota"[4].


Ca. K. cryptofilum has three rRNA genes (16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA). The organism has shown to produce 33 23S r-proteins and 27 16S r-proteins on its rRNA operon. The species is also found to have 45 tRNA genes on its genome with one initiator and 45 elongator tRNAs.[3][5]



Microbiome

The Microbiome of Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum is extreme compared to humans. The archaeon is found

Include some current research, with a second image.

The population of the Korachaeota is generally minute in its microbiome living in the biome. However in some cases they constitute 7% of all Archaea.[6]

Conclusion

References


Edited by [Charlie Stutz], student of Joan Slonczewski for BIOL 116 Information in Living Systems, 2019,