Difference between revisions of "Lawsonia intracellularis"

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{{biorealm genus}}
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{{Curated}}
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{{Biorealm Genus}}
  
 
==Classification==
 
==Classification==
Gram-negative oral spirochete
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Gram-negative  
  
 
===Higher order taxa===
 
===Higher order taxa===
  
Domain:Spirochaetes,
+
Phylum: Bacteria
Phylum: Bacteria,
 
Class: Inside series of Bacteria,
 
Order:,
 
Family: Treponema
 
 
 
  
 
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Desulfovibrionales; Desulfovibrionaceae; Lawsonia.
 
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Desulfovibrionales; Desulfovibrionaceae; Lawsonia.
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Strain: PHE/MN1-00.
 
Strain: PHE/MN1-00.
  
(there may be additional subcategories included as well.  You can just copy this information from the NCBI taxonomy page)
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
===Genus===  
 
===Genus===  
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Genus species: ''Lawsonia intracellularis''
 
Genus species: ''Lawsonia intracellularis''
  
 
 
{|
 
| height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" |
 
'''NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Tree&id=2&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy]'''
 
|}
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Description and significance==
 
==Description and significance==
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced.  Describe how and where it was isolated.
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''Lawsonia intracellularis'' is a bacterial pathogen which causes disease in a wide range of animals, mainly pigs. The bacterial pathogen invades the intestinal epithelial cells which causes hyperplasia of the infected cells and leads to the process of disease pathogenesis. ''Lawsonia intracelluaris'' is an intracellular enterophathogen that is the cause of intestinal hyperplasia which is an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement (2).  
Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
+
"The disease has two clinical manifestations in pigs: an acute hemorrhagic form often called porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy, and a more chronic proliferative form often referred as porcine intestinal adenomatosis" (3). ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' though primarily recognized in pigs, is spreading to a wide range of mammals. Based on 16SrRNA gene sequence, ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' is related to ''Desulfovibio'', a sulfate-reducing bacteria and ''Bilophila wadsworthia''.
 
 
''Treponema denticola'' is a motile, slender, helically shaped flexible organism. It is made up of a periplasmic flagella wound around the helical protoplasmic cylinder and encased in an outer sheath. It's habitat is anaerobic and host-associated. It grows at an optimal temperature of 30-42°C, with a pH of 6.5-8.0. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, specifically in subgingival dental plaque, and it is often associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal disease results in inflammation of the gum tissue, bone resorbtion, and subsequent tooth loss. Periodontal disease has now become a major concern in dentistry and 80% of adults in the USA are estimated to have had periodontal disease at some point in their lives.
 
The complete genome of T. denticola strain 35405 was sequenced by using the random shotgun method described for genomes sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research and it was designated as the type strain by Chan et al.
 
 
 
  
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==
Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes?  Circular or linear?  Other interesting features?  What is known about its sequence?
+
''Lawsonia intracellularis'' has a circular chromosome and of 1,457,619 nucleotides. The genomic content includes 1,719,014 nucleotides. It had 1,337 protein genes and 49 RNA genes.
Does it have any plasmids?  Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?
 
 
 
  
Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 has a complete genome. It is made up of dsDNA and 1 chromosome. It is circular and the length is 2,843,201 nucleotides. The GC content is 37%. It has 2838 genes.
 
Replicon Type: chromosome.
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==
Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
+
The structure of ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' reveals non-spore-forming curved rods. It contains gram-negative cells that are able to retain carbol-fushsin when stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen method. It is non-pigmented and non-flagellated. Through the Ziehl-Neelsen method the cell wall of a gram-negative is shown as well as the protoplasmic structure of a prokaryote. The cells replicate within pig epithelial cell cytoplasm and are not enclosed by membrane-bound vacuoles(1).
  
The genome reveals factors mediating coaggregation, cell signaling, and stress protection. It has a spiral shape and is arranged in singles. It is a mobile organism but does not contain any endospores. Motility is by rapid rotation around the long axis, flexation of the cell and locomotion along a helical path. The most distinctive property is the presence of periplasmic flagella wound around the helical protoplasmic cylinder and encased in an outer sheath.
 
  
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
+
==Ecology==
 +
Natural infection has not been detected in either wild or laboratory mice.  However, lab mice studies represent a potential reservoir, therefore studies have further implications for the ecology and epidemiology of proliferative enteropathy, also referred to as proliferative ileitis, which is caused by infection with ''Lawsonia intracellularis'', particularly in pigs. Though the major animal that is most susceptible are pigs, ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' has been detected laboratory animals such as "primates pig, horse, dog, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and hamster" (2). Though there is evidence of infection in primates, there is currently no direct evidence that ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' can infect humans.  
  
==Ecology==
+
An important pathway of transmission of ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' is environmental contamination with feces that are from infected animals. The period of time that ''Lawsonia intracellularis'' can remain infectious outside of the infected animal is not certain.
Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.
 
  
 
==Pathology==
 
==Pathology==
''Treponema denticola'' is a bacterial pathogen and plant plastid. It causes periodontal disease and gum inflammation.
+
''Lawsonia intracellularis'' is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which cause intestinal hyperplasia in a wide range of mammalian and avian species. As the bacteria is ingested it is able to "infect intestinal proliferating crypt epithelial cells and multiply within the apical cytoplasm" (2).  
 
 
  
How does this organism cause disease?  Human, animal, plant hosts?  Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
 
 
Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.
 
  
 
==Application to Biotechnology==
 
==Application to Biotechnology==
Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes?  What are they and how are they used?
+
Information not found.
  
 
==Current Research==
 
==Current Research==
 +
"Single-chain antibodies (scFv) exhibiting specific binding to Lawsonia intracellularis were isolated from a phagemid library expressing scFvs molecules on the surface of filamentous bacteriophages. For scFv selection whole bacterial cells were used and individual clones were tested in ELISA test. The total of seven unique clones with different fingerprint profiles was isolated. All clones were able to bind specifically in immunofluorescence assay. This is the first report of species specific recombinant antibodies against L. intracellularis".
  
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
+
"An in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in paraffin-embedded tissue is described. This technique recognized 71% of PCR-positive cases and was thus superior to Warthin-Starry silver stain, which only detected 41%. The presented ISH is of comparable sensitivity to previously published immunohistochemical assays and is recommended for laboratories wishing to diagnose L. intracellularis infections in tissue sections but without access to antibodies".
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
example:
+
1) Mcorist, S., Gebhart, C.J., Boid, R., Barns, S.M. “Characterization of Lawsonia intracellularis gen. nov., sp. nov., the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium of Porcine
 +
Proliferative Enteropathy.” 1995. Volume 45. p. 820-825.
 +
 
 +
2) Smith, DG.E., Mitchell, S.C., Nash, T., Rhind, S. “Gamma Interferon Influences Intestinal Epithelial Hyperplasia Caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Infection in Mice.” 2000. Volume 68. p. 6737–6743.
 +
 
 +
3) Jones, G. F., Ward, G.E., Murtaugh, M.P., Lin, G. and Gebhart, C.J. “Qualitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis bacteria by PCR.” 2007.
 +
 
 +
4) NCBI Taxonomy Genome Project, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=363253&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock.
  
[http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/14/8298 Glockner, F. O., M. Kube, M. Bauer, H. Teeling, T. Lombardot, W. Ludwig, D. Gade, A. Beck, K Borzym, K Heitmann, R. Rabus, H. Schlesner, R. Amann, and R. Reinhardt. 2003. "Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete ''Pirellula'' sp. strain 1."'' Proceedings of the National Acedemy of Sciences'', vol. 100, no. 14. (8298-8303)]
+
5) PubMed search site, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez
  
  
Edited by student of [mailto:ralarsen@ucsd.edu Rachel Larsen] and Kit Pogliano
+
KMG

Latest revision as of 15:19, 2 June 2011

This is a curated page. Report corrections to Microbewiki.

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Lawsonia intracellularis

Classification

Gram-negative

Higher order taxa

Phylum: Bacteria

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Desulfovibrionales; Desulfovibrionaceae; Lawsonia.

Strain: PHE/MN1-00.


Genus

Genus species: Lawsonia intracellularis


Description and significance

Lawsonia intracellularis is a bacterial pathogen which causes disease in a wide range of animals, mainly pigs. The bacterial pathogen invades the intestinal epithelial cells which causes hyperplasia of the infected cells and leads to the process of disease pathogenesis. Lawsonia intracelluaris is an intracellular enterophathogen that is the cause of intestinal hyperplasia which is an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement (2). "The disease has two clinical manifestations in pigs: an acute hemorrhagic form often called porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy, and a more chronic proliferative form often referred as porcine intestinal adenomatosis" (3). Lawsonia intracellularis though primarily recognized in pigs, is spreading to a wide range of mammals. Based on 16SrRNA gene sequence, Lawsonia intracellularis is related to Desulfovibio, a sulfate-reducing bacteria and Bilophila wadsworthia.


Genome structure

Lawsonia intracellularis has a circular chromosome and of 1,457,619 nucleotides. The genomic content includes 1,719,014 nucleotides. It had 1,337 protein genes and 49 RNA genes.


Cell structure and metabolism

The structure of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals non-spore-forming curved rods. It contains gram-negative cells that are able to retain carbol-fushsin when stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen method. It is non-pigmented and non-flagellated. Through the Ziehl-Neelsen method the cell wall of a gram-negative is shown as well as the protoplasmic structure of a prokaryote. The cells replicate within pig epithelial cell cytoplasm and are not enclosed by membrane-bound vacuoles(1).


Ecology

Natural infection has not been detected in either wild or laboratory mice. However, lab mice studies represent a potential reservoir, therefore studies have further implications for the ecology and epidemiology of proliferative enteropathy, also referred to as proliferative ileitis, which is caused by infection with Lawsonia intracellularis, particularly in pigs. Though the major animal that is most susceptible are pigs, Lawsonia intracellularis has been detected laboratory animals such as "primates pig, horse, dog, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and hamster" (2). Though there is evidence of infection in primates, there is currently no direct evidence that Lawsonia intracellularis can infect humans.

An important pathway of transmission of Lawsonia intracellularis is environmental contamination with feces that are from infected animals. The period of time that Lawsonia intracellularis can remain infectious outside of the infected animal is not certain.

Pathology

Lawsonia intracellularis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which cause intestinal hyperplasia in a wide range of mammalian and avian species. As the bacteria is ingested it is able to "infect intestinal proliferating crypt epithelial cells and multiply within the apical cytoplasm" (2).


Application to Biotechnology

Information not found.

Current Research

"Single-chain antibodies (scFv) exhibiting specific binding to Lawsonia intracellularis were isolated from a phagemid library expressing scFvs molecules on the surface of filamentous bacteriophages. For scFv selection whole bacterial cells were used and individual clones were tested in ELISA test. The total of seven unique clones with different fingerprint profiles was isolated. All clones were able to bind specifically in immunofluorescence assay. This is the first report of species specific recombinant antibodies against L. intracellularis".

"An in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in paraffin-embedded tissue is described. This technique recognized 71% of PCR-positive cases and was thus superior to Warthin-Starry silver stain, which only detected 41%. The presented ISH is of comparable sensitivity to previously published immunohistochemical assays and is recommended for laboratories wishing to diagnose L. intracellularis infections in tissue sections but without access to antibodies".

References

1) Mcorist, S., Gebhart, C.J., Boid, R., Barns, S.M. “Characterization of Lawsonia intracellularis gen. nov., sp. nov., the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium of Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy.” 1995. Volume 45. p. 820-825.

2) Smith, DG.E., Mitchell, S.C., Nash, T., Rhind, S. “Gamma Interferon Influences Intestinal Epithelial Hyperplasia Caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Infection in Mice.” 2000. Volume 68. p. 6737–6743.

3) Jones, G. F., Ward, G.E., Murtaugh, M.P., Lin, G. and Gebhart, C.J. “Qualitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis bacteria by PCR.” 2007.

4) NCBI Taxonomy Genome Project, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=363253&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock.

5) PubMed search site, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez


KMG