Difference between revisions of "Methanosphaera stadtmanae"

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==Description and significance==
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The Methanosphaera stadtmanae strain DSZM 3091 was isolated by the Deutsche Sammlung von Zellkulturen und Mikroorganismen (DSMZ), located in Braunschweig, Germany. It is important to isolate and sequence the genome of this archaeon as it is the first human archaeal commensal; therefore, it can help researchers gain a better understanding of the role of archael commensals in humans.  It was found that M. stadtmanae inhabits the human intestineThese archaea thrive there because methanol is present as a by product of “pectin degradation by Bacteroides species and other anaerobic bacteria”
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequencedDescribe how and where it was isolated.
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It was found that the M. stadtmanae can be grown on a medium that contains 0.5 g/liter sodium formate and 10% rumen fluid. The process of sequencing M. stadtmanae included extracting and shearing “its total genomic DNA to obtain various shotgun data using 3 kb to 5 kb fractions.”  Next, the fragments were cloned into vectors produced by the Invitrogen Co., pCR4-TOPO. Then, the ends of the recombinant plasmids were sequenced using dye terminator chemistry. Also, in order to edit the sequence, part of the Staden software package, GAP4, was used. In fact, about 8.7-fold coverage of the genome was achieved after reconstructing 21,555 sequences.
Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
 
 
 
 
 
''Bacillus licheniformis'' is a bacterium that is commonly found in soil and bird feathers. Birds that tend to stay on the ground more than the air (i.e. sparrows) and on the water (i.e. ducks) are common carriers of this bacterium; it is mostly found around the bird's chest area and back plumage.
 
 
 
''Bacillus licheniformis'' is part of the subtilis group along with ''Bacillus subtilis'' and ''Bacillus pumilus''. These bacteria are commonly known to cause food poisoning and food spoilage. ''Bacillus licheniformis'' also is known for contaminating dairy products. Food borne outbreaks usually involve cases of cooked meats and vegetables, raw milk, and industrially produced baby food contaminated with ''Bacillus licheniformis''.
 
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==

Revision as of 20:28, 4 June 2007

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Methanosphaera stadtmanae

Classification

Higher order taxa

Kingdom: Biota Domain: Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota Class: Methanobacteria Order: Methanobacteriales Family: Methanobacteriaceae

Genus

Genus: Methanosphaera Species: stadtmanae


NCBI: Taxonomy

The Methanosphaera stadtmanae strain DSZM 3091 was isolated by the Deutsche Sammlung von Zellkulturen und Mikroorganismen (DSMZ), located in Braunschweig, Germany. It is important to isolate and sequence the genome of this archaeon as it is the first human archaeal commensal; therefore, it can help researchers gain a better understanding of the role of archael commensals in humans. It was found that M. stadtmanae inhabits the human intestine. These archaea thrive there because methanol is present as a by product of “pectin degradation by Bacteroides species and other anaerobic bacteria” It was found that the M. stadtmanae can be grown on a medium that contains 0.5 g/liter sodium formate and 10% rumen fluid. The process of sequencing M. stadtmanae included extracting and shearing “its total genomic DNA to obtain various shotgun data using 3 kb to 5 kb fractions.” Next, the fragments were cloned into vectors produced by the Invitrogen Co., pCR4-TOPO. Then, the ends of the recombinant plasmids were sequenced using dye terminator chemistry. Also, in order to edit the sequence, part of the Staden software package, GAP4, was used. In fact, about 8.7-fold coverage of the genome was achieved after reconstructing 21,555 sequences.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Bacillus Licheniformis is a Gram positive, thermophillic bacterium. Its optimal growth temperature is 50°C, but it can also survive at much higher temperatures. Its optimal temperature for

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano