Difference between revisions of "Microbial Colonization of Space Stations"

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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
Long-term [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_station space station] missions to date include [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_program Salyut], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almaz Almaz], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab Skylab], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir Mir], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station ISS] (International Space Station), and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiangong Tiangong], with the latter two still ongoing. These expeditions demonstrate that space stations support a diverse microbial community. While most microbes are not harmful, routine microbial monitoring onboard space stations is still essential in preventing material biodeterioration2 and maintaining crew health3. As currently identified, these microorganisms originate from Earth, with main source coming from crewmembers themselves and from materials manufactured on ground.4 Environmental monitoring is important in identifying microbe and providing data for future studies in attempt to minimize microbial threat to crewmembers’ performance and spacecrafts’ health.
 
 
  
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Long-term [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_station space station] missions to date include [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_program Salyut], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almaz Almaz], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab Skylab], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir Mir], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station ISS] (International Space Station), and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiangong Tiangong], with the latter two still ongoing. These expeditions demonstrate that space stations support a diverse microbial community. While most microbes are not harmful, routine microbial monitoring onboard space stations is still essential in preventing material biodeterioration[[#References|[2]]]  and maintaining crew health[[#References|[3]]]. As currently identified, these microorganisms originate from Earth, with main source coming from crewmembers themselves and from materials manufactured on ground. [[#References|[4]]] Environmental monitoring is important in identifying microbe and providing data for future studies in attempt to minimize microbial threat to crewmembers’ performance and spacecrafts’ health.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 11:08, 8 December 2012

Introduction

Long-term space station missions to date include Salyut, Almaz, Skylab, Mir, ISS (International Space Station), and Tiangong, with the latter two still ongoing. These expeditions demonstrate that space stations support a diverse microbial community. While most microbes are not harmful, routine microbial monitoring onboard space stations is still essential in preventing material biodeterioration[2] and maintaining crew health[3]. As currently identified, these microorganisms originate from Earth, with main source coming from crewmembers themselves and from materials manufactured on ground. [4] Environmental monitoring is important in identifying microbe and providing data for future studies in attempt to minimize microbial threat to crewmembers’ performance and spacecrafts’ health.

References

Text

[1] van Tongeren, S. P., Krooneman, J., Raangs, G. C., Welling, G. W. and Harmsen, H. J. M. “Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station.” Microgravity Science and Technology, 2007, DOI: 10.1007/BF02911866

[2] Gu, J. “Microbial colonization of polymeric materials for space applications and mechanisms of biodeterioration: A review.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.08.010

[3] Castro, V. A., Thrasher, A. N., Healy, M., Ott C. M., and Pierson, D. L. “Microbial Characterization during the Early Habitation of the International Space Station.” Microbial Ecology, 2004, DOI: 10.1007/s00248-003-1030-y

[4] Pierson, D. L. “Microbial Contamination of Spacecraft.” Journal of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, 2001, cited October 2012. http://gravitationalandspacebiology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/261

[5] Ilyin, V. K. “Microbiological status of cosmonauts during orbital spaceflights on Salyut and Mir orbital stations.” Acta Astronautica, 2005, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2005.01.009

[6] Novikova, N., De Boever, P., Poddubko, S., Deshavaya, E., Polokarpov, N., Rakova, N., Coninx, I. and Mergeay, M. “Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station.” Research in Microbiology, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2005.07.010

[7] Vesper, S. J., Wong, W., Kuo, C. M. and Pierson, D. L. “Mold species in dust from the International Space Station identified and quantified by mold-specific quantitative PCR.” Research in Microbiology, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2008.06.001

[8] NASA: International Space Station, cited October 2012. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

[9] Robinson, J. A., Thumm, T. L. and Thomas, D. A. “NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration.” Acta Astronautica, 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.01.019

[10] Barbosa, R.C. “China launches TianGong-1 to mark next human space flight milestone.” NASASpaceFlight.com, 2011, cited October 2012. http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2011/09/china-major-human-space-flight-milestone-tiangong-1s-launch/

[11] Gunter, D., Flores, G., Effinger, M., Maule, J., Wainwright, N., Steele, A., Damon, M., Wells, M., Williams, S., Morris, H. and Monaco, L. “Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)” NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), 2009, http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017684&qs=N%3D4294950110%2B4294848119%2B4294301177

[12] Klaus, D. M. and Howard, H. N. “Antibiotic efficacy and microbial virulence during space flight.” Trends in Biotechnology, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.01.008

[13] Gu, J., Roman, M., Esselman, T. and Mitchell, R. “The role of microbial biofilms in deterioration of spacestation candidate materials.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 1998, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0964-8305(98)80005-X

[14] La Duc, M. T., Sumner, R., Pierson, D., Venkat, P. and Venkateswaran, K. “Evidence of pathogenic microbes in the International Space Station drinking water: reason for concern?” UK Pubmed Central, 2004, cited on October 2012. http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/15880908/reload=0;jsessionid=40fVP5QP57u3BxVyDAfi.4

[15] La Duc, M. “103rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.” American Society for Microbiology, 2003, cited October 2012. http://www.asm.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4205&title=How+Do+I+Get+My+First+Position+as+a+Microbiologist%3F+&Itemid=302

[16] Klintworth, R. and Reher, H. J. “Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from Mir station.” Acta Astronautica, 1999, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0094-5765(99)00069-7