Microbial biofilm inhibits wound healing

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Bacteria in biofilm are protected from antibiotic and host immune defenses. Source: Biofilms Made Easy,2010 1(1), Wounds International (http://www.woundsinternational.com/pdf/content_8851.pdf)].

By Katie Kaestner

Introduce the topic of your paper. What is your research question? What experiments have addressed your question? Applications for medicine and/or environment?















General Background

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

Every point of information REQUIRES CITATION using the citation tool shown above.


Chronic vs Acute Wounds

Section 2

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

Section 3

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

Section 4



  1. Dowd, Scot E., Randall D. Wolcott, Yan Sun, Trevor McKeehan, Ethan Smith, and Daniel Rhoads. “Polymicrobial Nature of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcer Biofilm Infections Determined Using Bacterial Tag Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP).” 2008. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3326. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003326.
  2. Bertesteanu, Serban, Stefanos Triaridis, Milan Stankovic, Veronica Lazar, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Mihaela Vlad, and Raluca Grigore. “Polymicrobial wound infections: Pathophysicology and current therapeutic approaches.” 2014. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 463: 119-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.12.012.
  3. Attinger, Christopher, and Randy Wolcott. “Clinically Addressing Biofilm in Chronic Wounds.” 2011. Advances in Wound Care, 1(3): 127-132. DOI: 10.1089/wound.2011.0333.
  4. Duplantier, Allen J. and Monique L. Van Hoek. “The human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 as a potential treatment for polymicrobial infected wounds.” 2013. Frontiers in Immunology 4(143): 1-14. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00143.
  5. Joo, Hwang-Soo and Michael Otto. “Molecular basis of In Vivo Biofilm Formation by Bacterial Pathogens.” 2012. Chemistry & Biology 19: 1503-1513. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol/2012.10.022.
  6. Kirketerp-Moller, Karen Zulkowski, and Garth James. “Chronic Wound Colonization, Infection, and Biofilms.” 2011. Biofilm Infections (Chapter 2). DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6084-9_2.
  7. Percival, Steven L., and Philip G. Bowler. “Biofilms and Their Potential Role in Wound Healing.” 2004. Wounds 16(7).
  8. Percival, Steven L., and Philip G. Bowler. “Understanding the effects of bacterial communities and biofilms on wound healing.” 2004. World Wide Wounds.
  9. Tuttle, Marie S., Eliot Mostow, Pranab Mukherjee, Fen Z. Hu, Rachael melton-Kreft, Garth D. Ehrlich, Scot E. Dowd, and Mohmoud A. Ghannoum. “Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Venous Insufficiency Wounds by Use of Conventional Culture and Molecular Diagnostic Methods.” 2011. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49(11): 3812-3819. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00847-11.
  10. Ventolini, Gary. “Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo – clinical implications.” 2015. International Journal of Women’s Health 7: 243-247.
  11. Watters, Chase, Katrina DeLeon, Urvish Trivedi, John A. Griswold, Mark Lyte, Ken J. Hampel, Matthew J. Wargo, and Kendra P. Rumbaugh. “Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms perturb wound resolution and antibiotic tolerance in diabetic mice.” 2013. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 202: 131-141. DOI: 10.1007/s00430-012-0277-7.
  12. Watters, Chase, Jake A. Everett, Cecily Haley, Allie Clinton, and Kendra P. Rumbaugh. “Insulin Treatment Modulates the Host Immune System To Enhance Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Biofilms.” 2014. Infection and Immunity 82(1): 92-100. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00651-13.
  13. Wolcott, R., J.W. Costerton, D. Raoult, and S.J. Culter. “The polymicrobial nature of biofilm infection.” 2013. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 19(2): 107-112. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.04001.x
  14. Zhao, Ge, Marcia L. Usui, Soyeon I. Lippman, Garth A. James, Philip S. Stewart, Philip Fleckman, and John E. Olerud. “Biofilms and Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.” 2013. Advances in Wound Care 2(7): 389-399. DOI: 10.1089/wound.2012.0381.

Authored for BIOL 238 Microbiology, taught by Joan Slonczewski, 2016, Kenyon College.