Difference between revisions of "Moritella marina"

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=Classification=
 
=Classification=
 
Domain: Bacteria
 
Domain: Bacteria
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=Species=
 
=Species=
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''Moritella marina'' ATCC 15381T
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Related species
 
''M. japonica, M. yayanosii, M. viscosa, M. profunda, M. abyssi, M. dasanesis''
 
''M. japonica, M. yayanosii, M. viscosa, M. profunda, M. abyssi, M. dasanesis''
 
  
 
=Description and Significance=
 
=Description and Significance=
 
''Moritella marina'' is a gram-negative halophilic psychrophilic facultative anaerobe with curved or straight rods, motile polar flagella that produce PUFA’s (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid). “Twenty-five years ago, a marine bacterium originally designated ''Vibrio marinus'' and later renamed ''Moritella marina'' MP-1 was reported to produce high levels of DHA (18% of the total fatty acids). Such high levels of DHA presumably provide this bacterium with the ability to maintain appropriate membrane fluidity in the low temperatures and high pressures of its marine environment.”
 
''Moritella marina'' is a gram-negative halophilic psychrophilic facultative anaerobe with curved or straight rods, motile polar flagella that produce PUFA’s (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid). “Twenty-five years ago, a marine bacterium originally designated ''Vibrio marinus'' and later renamed ''Moritella marina'' MP-1 was reported to produce high levels of DHA (18% of the total fatty acids). Such high levels of DHA presumably provide this bacterium with the ability to maintain appropriate membrane fluidity in the low temperatures and high pressures of its marine environment.”
“Phylogenetic tree of some representatives of the γ-subclass of the class Proteobacteria showing the position of 16S rDNA sequences from some ''Alteromonas macleodii''-related strains and clone sequences from picoplankton DNA from the Mediterranean Sea mesocosm experiment. Sequences of clones 17B161 and 1B161 are available under accession number Y18229 and Y18231, respectively. The tree was calculated by the algorithm of De Soete [16]. The percentage of 500 bootstrap samplings that support branching points above 80% confidence are indicated. The scale bar corresponds to two nucleotide substitutions over 100 sequence positions. The tree was rooted with ''Roseobacter algicola'' as an outgroup.” (FEMS, 1998)
 
  
[[image:Phytree.png|thumbnail|300px| Figure 1: The Family ''Moritellacae''(Urakawa, 2014). ''Moritella viscosa'' is 99% closely related to ''Moritella marina.'' ]]
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[[image:Phytree.png|thumbnail|300px| Figure 1: The family Moritellaceae and related members within the order Alteromonadales.(Urakawa 2014).]]
  
 
=16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Information=
 
=16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Information=
  
  
[[image:16s.png|thumbnail|300px| Figure 2: Image credit:(Urakawa, 2014)]]
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[[image:16s.png|thumbnail|300px| Figure 2: Image credit:(Urakawa 2014)]]
  
“Sequence variation at positions 73–98 and 181–214 (E. coli nomenclature) within two variable regions of the 16S rDNA of representatives of clone clusters 1–5 and some strains isolated from mesocosm B. Probe target regions are in bold” (FEMS,1998)
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Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, ''Moritella marina'' shows nearly identical similarities with other ''Moritella'' species (97-99% identity with other species) (Fig. 1).  Unique T-T insertions at position between 206 and 207 among ''Moritella'' species can help to differentiate ''Moritella'' species from other closely related taxa (Fig. 2).
  
 
=Genome Structure=
 
=Genome Structure=
  
Look at Figure: 3
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The draft genome of ''M. marina'' MP-1 (ATCC 15381) consisting of 83 contigs includes 4,636,778 bp and 4,121 predicted coding DNA sequences with a G+C content of 40.5%. There are 34 predicted RNAs, one predicted copy of 16S rRNA, and four predicted copies of 23S rRNA (Kautharapu and Jarboe 2012).
  
[[image:GenomeStructure.png|thumbnail|350px| Figure 3: High sequence diversity of Alteromonas macleodii-related cloned and cellular 16S rDNAs from a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm experiment. (FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2016) ]]
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=Ecology and pathogenesis=
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''Moritella marina'' has been found in a variety of cold marine environments, ranging from the ocean floor to the intestinal tract of marine organisms. Most ''Moritella'' species are thought to live mutualistically amongst marine organisms, but ''Moritella viscosa'' has been noted to cause skin ulcers in some cold water fish (Urakawa 2014).
  
=Ecology and pathogenesis=
 
''Moritella marina'' have been found in a variety of cold water marine environments, ranging from the ocean floor to the intestinal tract of marine organisms. Most ''Moritella'' species are thought to live mutualistically amongst larger marine organisms, but ''Moritella viscosa'' has been noted to cause skin ulcers in some fish (Urakawa, 2014). 
 
 
=Current Research=
 
=Current Research=
''Moritella marina'' has been noted for having unusually high production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). When ''M. marina'' strain MP-1 was cultured in medium containing cerulenin, a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, decreases in levels of middle-chain fatty acids and remarkable increases in levels of DHA were observed. These results suggest that the synthesis of middle-chain fatty acids works independently of the synthesis of DHA. M. marina was also found to produce chitonase when induced with chiton (Stefanidi, E., & Vorgias, C. E., 2008).
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''Moritella marina'' has been noted for having unusually high production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). When ''M. marina'' strain MP-1 was cultured in medium containing cerulenin, a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, decreases in levels of middle-chain fatty acids and remarkable increases in levels of DHA were observed. These results suggest that the synthesis of middle-chain fatty acids works independently of the synthesis of DHA. ''M. marina'' was also found to produce chitonase when induced with chiton (Stefanidi and Vorgias 2008).
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=References=
 
=References=
  
  
And, Kumar B. Kautharapu. "Kumar B. Kautharapu." ''Genome Sequence of the Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina MP-1'' (ATCC 15381). N.p., 2012. Web. 02 Dec. 2016.
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Kautharapu, K. B., & Jarboe, L. R. (2012). Genome sequence of the psychrophilic deep-sea bacterium ''Moritella marina'' MP-1 (ATCC 15381). Journal of Bacteriology, 194(22), 6296-6297.
 
http://jb.asm.org/content/194/22/6296.full
 
http://jb.asm.org/content/194/22/6296.full
 
 
Urakawa, H., Kita-Tsukamoto, K., Steven, S. E., Ohwada, K., & Colwell, R. R. (1998). A proposal to transfer Vibrio marinus (Russell 1891) to a new genus Moritella gen. nov. as Moritella marina comb. nov. FEMS microbiology letters, 165(2), 373-378. http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/165/2/373.full#ref-13
 
  
  
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Stefanidi, E., & Vorgias, C. E. (2008). Molecular analysis of the gene encoding a new chitinase from the marine psychrophilic bacterium ''Moritella marina'' and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Extremophiles, 12(4), 541-552.
 
Stefanidi, E., & Vorgias, C. E. (2008). Molecular analysis of the gene encoding a new chitinase from the marine psychrophilic bacterium ''Moritella marina'' and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Extremophiles, 12(4), 541-552.
"FEMS Microbiology Ecology." High Sequence Diversity of Alteromonas Macleodii-related Cloned and Cellular 16S RDNAs from a Mediterranean Seawater Mesocosm Experiment | FEMS Microbiology Ecology. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2016.
 
http://femsec.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/4/335
 
 
 
http://www.bacterio.net/moritella.html 
 
 
 
Genome structure image:
 
https://www.patricbrc.org/portal/portal/patric/CircosGenomeViewer?cType=genome&cId=1202962.4
 
 
 
http://jb.asm.org/content/194/22/6296.full.pdf
 
 
http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1177&context=cbe_pubs
 
 
http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/28/6/943.long
 
  
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232721452_Genome_Sequence_of_the_Psychrophilic_Deep-Sea_Bacterium_Moritella_marina_MP-1_ATCC_15381
 
  
http://aem.asm.org/content/51/4/730.abstract?ijkey=6cfa0071e9fc15e0a007123a571561c86c1354d3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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Urakawa H. (2014). The family Moritellaceae.  In The Prokaryotes, 4th edition. Edited by Eugene Rosenberg, Edward F. DeLong, Fabiano Thompson, Stephen Lory and Erko Stackebrandt. Springer. New York. Gammaproteobacteria pp. 477-489.
  
http://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007%2F978-3-642-30194-0
 
  
http://jb.asm.org/content/99/1/326.full.pdf
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Urakawa, H., Kita-Tsukamoto, K., Steven, S. E., Ohwada, K., & Colwell, R. R. (1998). A proposal to transfer ''Vibrio marinus'' (Russell 1891) to a new genus ''Moritella'' gen. nov. as ''Moritella marina'' comb. nov. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 165(2), 373-378. http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/165/2/373.full#ref-13
  
 
=Author=
 
=Author=
Sarah Fayed and Brandon Galindo
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Sarah Fayed and Brandon Galindo with Microbial Ecology Instructor Dr. Hideotoshi Urakawa

Latest revision as of 14:06, 4 October 2017

This student page has not been curated.

Classification

Domain: Bacteria

Phylum: Proteobacteria

Class: Gammaproteobacteria

Order: Alteromonadales

Family: Moritellaceae

Genus: Moritella

Species

Moritella marina ATCC 15381T

Related species M. japonica, M. yayanosii, M. viscosa, M. profunda, M. abyssi, M. dasanesis

Description and Significance

Moritella marina is a gram-negative halophilic psychrophilic facultative anaerobe with curved or straight rods, motile polar flagella that produce PUFA’s (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid). “Twenty-five years ago, a marine bacterium originally designated Vibrio marinus and later renamed Moritella marina MP-1 was reported to produce high levels of DHA (18% of the total fatty acids). Such high levels of DHA presumably provide this bacterium with the ability to maintain appropriate membrane fluidity in the low temperatures and high pressures of its marine environment.”

Figure 1: The family Moritellaceae and related members within the order Alteromonadales.(Urakawa 2014).

16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Information

Figure 2: Image credit:(Urakawa 2014)

Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, Moritella marina shows nearly identical similarities with other Moritella species (97-99% identity with other species) (Fig. 1). Unique T-T insertions at position between 206 and 207 among Moritella species can help to differentiate Moritella species from other closely related taxa (Fig. 2).

Genome Structure

The draft genome of M. marina MP-1 (ATCC 15381) consisting of 83 contigs includes 4,636,778 bp and 4,121 predicted coding DNA sequences with a G+C content of 40.5%. There are 34 predicted RNAs, one predicted copy of 16S rRNA, and four predicted copies of 23S rRNA (Kautharapu and Jarboe 2012).

Ecology and pathogenesis

Moritella marina has been found in a variety of cold marine environments, ranging from the ocean floor to the intestinal tract of marine organisms. Most Moritella species are thought to live mutualistically amongst marine organisms, but Moritella viscosa has been noted to cause skin ulcers in some cold water fish (Urakawa 2014).

Current Research

Moritella marina has been noted for having unusually high production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). When M. marina strain MP-1 was cultured in medium containing cerulenin, a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, decreases in levels of middle-chain fatty acids and remarkable increases in levels of DHA were observed. These results suggest that the synthesis of middle-chain fatty acids works independently of the synthesis of DHA. M. marina was also found to produce chitonase when induced with chiton (Stefanidi and Vorgias 2008).

References

Kautharapu, K. B., & Jarboe, L. R. (2012). Genome sequence of the psychrophilic deep-sea bacterium Moritella marina MP-1 (ATCC 15381). Journal of Bacteriology, 194(22), 6296-6297. http://jb.asm.org/content/194/22/6296.full


Pukall, R., Päuker, O., Buntefuß, D., Ulrichs, G., Lebaron, P., Bernard, L., ... & Stackebrandt, E. (1999). High sequence diversity of Alteromonas macleodii-related cloned and cellular 16S rDNAs from a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm experiment. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 28(4), 335-344. http://femsec.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/4/335


Stefanidi, E., & Vorgias, C. E. (2008). Molecular analysis of the gene encoding a new chitinase from the marine psychrophilic bacterium Moritella marina and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Extremophiles, 12(4), 541-552.


Urakawa H. (2014). The family Moritellaceae. In The Prokaryotes, 4th edition. Edited by Eugene Rosenberg, Edward F. DeLong, Fabiano Thompson, Stephen Lory and Erko Stackebrandt. Springer. New York. Gammaproteobacteria pp. 477-489.


Urakawa, H., Kita-Tsukamoto, K., Steven, S. E., Ohwada, K., & Colwell, R. R. (1998). A proposal to transfer Vibrio marinus (Russell 1891) to a new genus Moritella gen. nov. as Moritella marina comb. nov. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 165(2), 373-378. http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/165/2/373.full#ref-13

Author

Sarah Fayed and Brandon Galindo with Microbial Ecology Instructor Dr. Hideotoshi Urakawa