Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]

Species

NCBI: Taxonomy

Genus species

Description and significance

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram- negative coccus, or bacteria whose overall shape is spherical. It is usually seen in pairs with adjacent sides flattened. The organism is usually find interacellulary in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or a specific category of white blood cells which varying shapes of nuclei, of the gonorrhea pustular exudates [2] with humans as its only natural host. [1] N. gonorrhoeae is highly efficient in using transferrin-bound iron for in vitro growth. Many strains can also utilize lactoferrin-bound iron. The bacteria bind only human transferrin and lactoferrin. This specificity is thought to be the reason these bacteria are exclusively human pathogens. [2] The bacterium was first discovered in 1879 by a German physician Albert Ludwig Sigesmund. [18] This organism is relatively fragile and is susceptible to temperature changes, drying, uv light, and some other environmental conditions. [2] The recommended procedure for isolating Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves the inoculation of a specimen directly onto a nutritive growth medium that is at room temperature and immediate incubation at 35-37ºC in an atmosphere of 3 – 10% added CO2. [17] Strains are inconsistent in their cultural requirements so the media needed for growth and isolation of the organism contain hemoglobin, NAD, yeast extract and other supplements.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen