Difference between revisions of "Nitrobacter hamburgensis"

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Classification
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{{Biorealm Genus}}
  
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Bradyrhizobiaceae; Nitrobacter; Nitrobacter hamburgensis
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==Classification==
  
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===Higher order taxa===
  
Description and significance
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Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used.  Use [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/ NCBI] link to find]
  
Nitrobacter hamburgensis, gram negative bacteria, was isolated from soil of the Old Botanic Garden in Hamburg and of a corn field in Yucatan.  Two strains have been identified, the X14 strain and the Y strain.  The main types of environments they inhabit are soil, building sandstone, and sewage sludge.  Its cells are 0.5-0.8 x 1.2-2.0 μm in size.  They are pleomorphic; mostly pear-shaped and motile via one subpolar to lateral flagellum.  Intracytoplasmic membranes appear as caps of flattened vesicles or membrane vesicles in the central region of the cell.  The bacteria have an enzyme capable of oxidizing nitrite.  This is why it is important to sequence the genome of N. hamburgensis.
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===Species===
  
Genome structure
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{|
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| height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" |
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'''NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Tree&id=2&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy]'''
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There is one circular DNA chromosome and three circular DNA plasmids.  The chromosome has 4,406,967 nucleotides.  Plasmid 1 has 294,829 nucleotides, 2 has 188,318 nucleotides, and 3 has 121,408 nucleotides.
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''Genus species''
  
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==Description and significance==
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Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced.  Describe how and where it was isolated.
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Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
  
Cell structure and metabolism
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==Genome structure==
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Describe the size and content of the genome.  How many chromosomes?  Circular or linear?  Other interesting features?  What is known about its sequence?
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Does it have any plasmids?  Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?
  
N. hamburgensis gains energy from oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via the enzyme nitrite oxidoreductase (NOR). It grows best mixotrophically with a doubling time of 10 hours to 18 hours.  Its growth rate under heterotrophic conditions is slower than under mixotrophic conditions, but higher than under lithoautotrophic conditions.
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==Cell structure and metabolism==
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Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
  
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==Ecology==
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Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.
  
Application to Biotechnology
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==Pathology==
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How does this organism cause disease?  Human, animal, plant hosts?  Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
  
This organism produces nitrite oxidoreductase used for oxidizing nitrite to nitrate.  From the redox reaction; the organism gains energy.
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==Application to Biotechnology==
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Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes?  What are they and how are they used?
  
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==Current Research==
  
Current Research
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Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
  
Recent research has investigated the benefits of using nirtrifying bacteria in neutralizing wastewater. Researchers have constructed biofilms with different nitrifying bacteria including N. hamburgensis. They were successful in removing high levels of nitrogen in a short amount of time from municipal effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The biofilms are sufficient alternatives for the treatment of industrial wastewaters that otherwise requires very large and expensive reactors for efficient bioremediation
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==References==
of effluents.
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[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/2/489 Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "''Palaeococcus ferrophilus'' gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology''. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.]
  
Other current research has identified evidence that the previously published sequence of norX in N. hamburgensis X14(T) contains an invalid base "insertion," which resulted in a frameshift and a misidentified start codon.
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Edited by student of [mailto:ralarsen@ucsd.edu Rachel Larsen] and Kit Pogliano
 
 
References
 
 
 
Jens Aamand, Thomas Ahl, and Eva Spieck. 1996. "Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Nitirite Oxidoreductase fo Nitrobacter hamburgensis, N. winogradskyi, and N. vulgaris." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 7. (2352-5)
 
 
 
E. Bock et al. 1983. “New facultative lithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria.” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 136, no.4. (281-284)
 
 
 
Franco-Rivera A, Paniaqua-Michel S, Zamora-Castro J. 2007.  “Characterization and performance of constructed nitrifying biofilms during nitrogen bioremediation of a wastewater effluent.” Journal of industrial microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 34, no. 4. (279-287)
 
 
 
Maron PA, Coeur C, Pink C, Clays-Josserand A, Lensi R, Richaume-A Potier. 2006. “Validation of the correct start codon of norX/nxrX and universality of the norAXB/nxrAXB gene cluster in nitorbacter species. Current Microbiology, vol 53, no 3. (255-257)
 
Edited by Rashonda Butler of UC San Diego, student of Rachel Larsen.
 
 
 
Retrieved from "http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php
 

Revision as of 03:26, 8 May 2007

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Nitrobacter hamburgensis

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]

Species

NCBI: Taxonomy

Genus species

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano