Overview of Rhizopus oryzae

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1. Classification

a. Higher order taxa

Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom: Fungi, Phylum: Zygomycota, Class: Zygomycetes, Order: Mucorales, Family: Mucoraceae, Genus: Rhizopus, and Species: oryzae.

2. Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why you think it is important.

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3. Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?

4. Cell structure

Interesting features of cell structure. Can be combined with “metabolic processes”

5. Metabolic processes

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6. Ecology

Habitat; symbiosis; contributions to the environment.

7. Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

7. Key microorganisms

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8. Current Research

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9. References

1. Bala, K., Chander, J., Handa, U., Punia, R. S., and Attri, A. K. 2015. A prospective study of mucormycosis in north India: experience from a tertiary care hospital. Medical Mycology 53(3): 248–257. 2. Gryganskyi, A. P., Lee, S. C., Litvintseva, A. P., Smith, M. E., Bonito, G., Porter, T. M., Anishchenko, I. M., Heitman, J., and Vilgalys, R. 2010. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex. PLoS One 5(12):15-273. 3. Ma, L., Ibrahim, A. S., Skory, C., Grabherr, M. G., Burger, G., Butler, M., Elias, M., Idnurm, A., Lang, B. F., Sone, T., et al. 2009. Genomic Analysis of the Basal Lineage Fungus Rhizopus oryzae Reveals a Whole-Genome Duplication. PLOS Genetics 5(7):e1000549. 4. Mélida, H., Sain, D., Stajich, J. E., and Bulone, V. 2015. Deciphering the uniqueness of Mucoromycotina cell walls by combining biochemical and phylogenomic approaches. Environmental Microbiology 17:1649-1662. 5. Yin, X., Li, J., Shin, H., Du, G., Liu, L., and Chen, J. 2015. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects. Biotechnology Advances 33(6):830-841. 6. Liu, Y., Xu, Q., Lv, C., Yan, C., Li, S., Jiang, L., Huang, H., and Ouyang, P. 2015. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 177(7):1508-1519. 7. Londoño-Hernández, L., Ramírez-Toro, C., Ruiz, H. A., Ascacio-Valdés, J. A., Aguilar-Gonzalez, M. A., Rodríguez-Herrera, R., and Aguilar C. N. 2017. Rhizopus oryzae–Ancient microbial resource with importance in modern food industry. International Journal of Food Microbiology 257:110-127. 8. Hunter, W. E., Duniway, J. M., and Butler, E. E. 1977. Influence of nutrition, temperature, moisture, and gas composition on parasitism of Rhizopus oryzae by Syncephalis californica. Phytopathology 67:664-69. 9. Lengerova, M., Racil, Z., Hrncirova, K., Kocmanova, I., Volfova, P., Ricna, D., Bejdak, P., Moulis, M., Pavlovsky, Z., Weinbergerova, B., et al. 2014. Rapid detection and identification of mucormycetes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates by use of high-resolution melt analysis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 52(8):2824-2828. 10. Dolatabadi, S., Kolecka, A., Versteeg, M., de Hoog, S. G., and Boekhout, T. 2015. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Journal of Medical Microbiology 64:694-701. 11. Ibrahim, A. S., Spellberg, B., Avanessian, V., Fu, Y., and Edwards, J. E., Jr. 2005. Rhizopus oryzae adheres to, is phagocytosed by, and damages endothelial cells in vitro. Infection and Immunity 73(2):778-783. 12. Chowdhary, A., Kathuria, S., Singh, P. K., Sharma, B., Dolatabadi, S., Hagen, F. and Meis, J. F. 2014. Molecular characterization and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 80 clinical isolates of mucormycetes in Delhi, India. Mycoses 57(3): 97–107. 13. Shirazi, F., Kontoyiannis, D. P., and Ibrahim, A. S. 2015. Iron starvation induces apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae in vitro. Virulence 6(2):121–126. 14. Mantadakis, E., and Samonis, G. 2009. Clinical presentation of zygomycosis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15(5):15-20. 15. Roden, M. M., Zaoutis, T. E., Buchanan, W. L., Knudsen, T. A., Sarkisova, T. A., Schaufele, R. L., Sein, M., Sein, T., Chiou, C. C., Chu, J. H., et al. 2005. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: A review of 929 reported cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases 41(5):634-653. 16. Manesh, A., John, A. O., Mathew, B., Varghese, L., Rupa, V., Zachariah, A., and Varghese, G. M. 2016. Posaconazole: an emerging therapeutic option for invasive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Mycoses 59(12):765–772. 17. Tang, X., Zhu, H., Sun, L., Hou, W., Cai, S., Zhang, R., and Liu, F. 2014. Enhanced antifungal effects of amphotericin B-TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9:5403–5413. 18. Kwon, J., Ryu, J., Chi, T. T., Shen, S., and Choi, O. 2012. Soft rot of Rhizopus oryzae as a postharvest pathogen of banana fruit in Korea. Mycobiology 40(3):214-216. 19. Cantabrana, I., Perise, R., and Hernández, I. 2015. Uses of Rhizopus oryzae in the kitchen. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science 2(2):103–111. 20. Ait Kaki El-Hadef El-Okki, A., Gagaoua, M., Bourekoua, H., Hafid, K., Bennamoun, L., Djekrif-Dakhmouche, S., El-Hadef El-Okki, M. E., and Meraihi, Z. 2017. Improving bread quality with the application of a newly purified thermostable α-amylase from Rhizopus oryzae FSIS4. Foods 6(1).