Higher order taxa
Bacteria, Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales, Pseudomonadaceae, Pseudomonas
Description and significance
Pseudomonas entomophila is a Gram negative bacteria, found in soil, aquatic, or rhizosphere environments. It was first isolated from the species Drosophila melanogaster. Once ingested, causes lethality in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults. Pseudomonas entomophila's significance is that its the first known Pseudomonas strain to be pathogenic in Drosophila melanogaster, while devoid of a type III secretion system. Pseudomonas entomophila's genome encodes insecticidal toxins, a diffusible haemolytic activity, lipases, extracellular proteases, and potential adhesions which cluster with type I or II secretion system proteins. Being relatively harmless to plant life, Pseudomonas entomophila may be used for future insecticides.
DNA; circular; Length: 5,888,780 nt; Replicon Type: chromosome
Cell structure and metabolism
Gram negative. Flagella present. Three proteins PSEEN0141, PSEEN2177, and PSEEN3946 involved in adhesion to host surfaces and promoting colonization. Its metabolism includes the pentose phosphate pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and an incomplete Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway due to the absence of 6-phophofructokinase. Its genome encodes for hydrolytic activities, lipases, proteases, a set of 19 uncharacterized hydrolases involved in the degradation of polymers found within the soil.
Pathogenic interaction with Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster maintains a hostile environment for microbes by secreting antimicrobial factors such as lysozymes and other digestive enzymes. P. entomophila's genome consists four catalases, two superoxide dismutases, three hydroperoxide reductases, and eleven glutathione-S-transferases, which are involved in resistance to oxidative stress produced by D. melanogaster to prevent microbial proliferation within the gut.
Pseudomonas entomophila's persistence within the gut initiates a local and systemic immune response in the insect. Virulence factor found to be lethality among Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults, as well as other insects. Its genome is devoid of genes encoding enzymes albe to breakdown plant cell walls, leading to its nonpathogenesis in plants.
Application to Biotechnology
Pseudomonas entomophila produces three TccC-type compounds PSEEN2485, PSEEN2697, and PSEEN2788, all of which are insecticidal toxins. It also secretes a diffusible hemolytic activity which may be involved in pathogenicity in insects. Bacterial hemolysins act as exotoxins that cell rupture by attacking blood cell membranes. It also produces proteases, three serine proteases PSEEN3027, PSEEN3028, PSEEN4433 and an alkaline protease PSEEN1550. Proteases contribute to the virulence among different species.
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
Vodovar N., Vallenet D., Cruveiller S., Rouy Z., Barbe V., Acosta C., Cattolico L., Jubin C., Lajus A., Segurens B., Vacherie B., Wincker P., Weissenbach J., Lemaitre B., Medigue C., Boccard F. "Complete genome sequence of the entomopathogenic and metabolically versatile soil bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila." Nat. Biotechnol. 24:673-679(2006).
Edited by student of Jason Kim