Difference between revisions of "Racial Disparities in MRSA Infections"

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[[Image:mrsa_magn_lg.jpg|thumb|300px|right| Image taken from a colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) magnified at 20,000X depicting a grouping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.  Photo credit belongs to Public Health Image Library. [http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/home.asp/ CDC].]]
 
[[Image:mrsa_magn_lg.jpg|thumb|300px|right| Image taken from a colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) magnified at 20,000X depicting a grouping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.  Photo credit belongs to Public Health Image Library. [http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/home.asp/ CDC].]]
 
<br>By Amir Johnson <br>
 
<br>By Amir Johnson <br>
<br> Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA for short, is a Gram-positive cocci-shaped (spherical) bacterium that measures approximately 1μm in diameter and forms clusters that are popularly described as being grape-like. <ref name=sadef>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148192/#B1 Lakhundi, S., & Zhang, K.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00020-18 "Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus<i>: Molecular Characterization, Evolution, and Epidemiology." 2018. Clinical microbiology reviews, 31(4), e00020-18.]</ref> S. aureus is present on and within the bodies of many individuals asymptomatically, and as a result of this it often remains unnoticed. According to studies around 20% of people are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus and around 30% are intermittent carriers, with the remaining 50% not carrying the bacterium. <ref name=sadef/> Other than within the nose, S. aureus can be commonly seen present on the skin, skin glands, guts, and a variety of mucous membranes. This presence within the body is referred to as colonization, and it significantly increases the chances of acquiring an infection by providing a reservoir of the pathogen. <ref name=sadef/> In most cases, the previously asymptomatic, commensal S. aureus that colonized the microbiome of individuals is responsible for their infection. <ref name=mrsaresevoir> [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.5172/conu.13.1.38 Rhonda Griffiths, Ritin Fernandez, Elizabeth Halcomb "Reservoirs of MRSA in the acute hospital setting: A systematic review" 2002. Contemporary Nurse, 13:1, 38-49] </ref>   <br>
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<br> Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA for short, is a Gram-positive cocci-shaped (spherical) bacterium that measures approximately 1μm in diameter and forms clusters that are popularly described as being grape-like. <ref name=sadef>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148192/#B1 Lakhundi, S., & Zhang, K.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00020-18 "Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus<i>: Molecular Characterization, Evolution, and Epidemiology." 2018. Clinical microbiology reviews, 31(4), e00020-18.]</ref> S. aureus is present on and within the bodies of many individuals asymptomatically, and as a result of this it often remains unnoticed. According to studies around 20% of people are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus and around 30% are intermittent carriers, with the remaining 50% not carrying the bacterium. <ref name=sadef/> Other than within the nose, S. aureus can be commonly seen present on the skin, skin glands, guts, and a variety of mucous membranes. This presence within the body is referred to as colonization, and it significantly increases the chances of acquiring an infection by providing a reservoir of the pathogen. <ref name=sadef/> In most cases, the previously asymptomatic, commensal S. aureus that previously colonized the microbiome of individuals is responsible for their infection. <ref name=mrsaresevoir> [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.5172/conu.13.1.38 Rhonda Griffiths, Ritin Fernandez, Elizabeth Halcomb "Reservoirs of MRSA in the acute hospital setting: A systematic review" 2002. Contemporary Nurse, 13:1, 38-49] </ref> Within the world of public health and medicine, a hugely important factor associated with S. aureus is its significant level of acquisition of resistance against multiple antibiotic classes, which greatly complicates efforts to treat it clinically. <ref name=antibioticresistance/> [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378521 Ventola, C Lee. “The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats.” 2015 P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management vol. 40,4: 277-83.] Methicilin is an antibiotic class of particular interest with regard to resistance acquisition among S. aureus. According to the latest CDC data released in 2019, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other, less prominent strains of S. aureus accounted for an estimated 119,247 bloodstream infections in 2017, while causing 19,832 of those infected to pass away from complications associated with infection. <ref name=staphdeaths/> [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6809e1.htm Kourtis AP, Hatfield K, Baggs J, et al. "Vital Signs: Epidemiology and Recent Trends in Methicillin-Resistant and in Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections — United States." 2019 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:214–219.]  <br>
  
 
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Revision as of 04:33, 8 April 2021

What is MRSA?

Image taken from a colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) magnified at 20,000X depicting a grouping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. Photo credit belongs to Public Health Image Library. CDC.


By Amir Johnson

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA for short, is a Gram-positive cocci-shaped (spherical) bacterium that measures approximately 1μm in diameter and forms clusters that are popularly described as being grape-like. [1] S. aureus is present on and within the bodies of many individuals asymptomatically, and as a result of this it often remains unnoticed. According to studies around 20% of people are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus and around 30% are intermittent carriers, with the remaining 50% not carrying the bacterium. [1] Other than within the nose, S. aureus can be commonly seen present on the skin, skin glands, guts, and a variety of mucous membranes. This presence within the body is referred to as colonization, and it significantly increases the chances of acquiring an infection by providing a reservoir of the pathogen. [1] In most cases, the previously asymptomatic, commensal S. aureus that previously colonized the microbiome of individuals is responsible for their infection. [2] Within the world of public health and medicine, a hugely important factor associated with S. aureus is its significant level of acquisition of resistance against multiple antibiotic classes, which greatly complicates efforts to treat it clinically. [3] Ventola, C Lee. “The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats.” 2015 P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management vol. 40,4: 277-83. Methicilin is an antibiotic class of particular interest with regard to resistance acquisition among S. aureus. According to the latest CDC data released in 2019, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other, less prominent strains of S. aureus accounted for an estimated 119,247 bloodstream infections in 2017, while causing 19,832 of those infected to pass away from complications associated with infection. [4] Kourtis AP, Hatfield K, Baggs J, et al. "Vital Signs: Epidemiology and Recent Trends in Methicillin-Resistant and in Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections — United States." 2019 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:214–219.



Section 2

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Section 3

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Section 4

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Hospital-Associated MRSA

Community-Associated MRSA

MRSA cases by race, stratified by quartiles of US census data pertaining to income, housing, education, and health. Cases are depicted in increasing quartiles of census data, per 100000 persons for white (white bars) and black (black bars) persons. [5]

Section 4

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

References