Salmonella typhi

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Salmonella typhi


Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enteriobacteriales; Enterobacteriaceae [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]


NCBI: Taxonomy

Genus species

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.


Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.


How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms. Salmonella typhi has killed over 600,000 people annually all over the world. It is a deadly bacterial disease that causes typhoid fever and is transmitted through food and water. It has become epidemic in South Asian countries where sanitation is lacking. S. typhi usually invade the surface of the intestine in humans, but have developed and adapted to grow into the deeper tissues of the spleen, liver, and the bone marrow. Symptoms most characterized by this disease often include a sudden onset of a high fever at first, a headache, and nausea. Other common symptoms include loss of appetite, diarrhea, and enlargement of the spleen (depending on where it is located). S typhi has an endotoxin, typical of Gram negative organisms, as well as the Vi antigen which increases virulence. It also produces a protein called invasin that allows non-phagocytic cells to take up the bacterium and allows it to live intracellularly. Salmonella typhi is a strong pathogen for humans due to its resistance to the innate immune response system.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required


[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen