Difference between revisions of "Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus"

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=Background & Description=
 
=Background & Description=
  
Fission yeast are unicellular eukaryotes that undergo division by medial fission rather than budding.<ref>1</ref> Normally, propagation is mitotic as haploids, but under nitrogen starvation, sexual union between two haploid cells of opposite mating-types occurs, thus deriving the name fission yeast. The first physical step in the process is cellular elongation and the formation of conjugation tubes towards pheromones secreted by opposite mating-type cells.<ref>2</ref> Conjugation of two opposite mating-types creates a diploid zygote which will undergo meiosis to produce four haploid nuclei which become encapsulated by spore walls.<ref>3</ref>
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Fission yeast are unicellular eukaryotes that undergo division by medial fission rather than budding.1  Normally, propagation is mitotic as haploids, but under nitrogen starvation, sexual union between two haploid cells of opposite mating-types occurs, thus deriving the name fission yeast. The first physical step in the process is cellular elongation and the formation of conjugation tubes towards pheromones secreted by opposite mating-type cells.2  Conjugation of two opposite mating-types creates a diploid zygote which will undergo meiosis to produce four haploid nuclei which become encapsulated by spore walls.3
  
 
<dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> is specific fission yeast of the genus <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces</dfn> that grows at lower temperatures than other known fission yeasts. Morphologically <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> is very similar to <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces octosporus</dfn>, but displays unique differences phenotypically and genotypically.
 
<dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> is specific fission yeast of the genus <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces</dfn> that grows at lower temperatures than other known fission yeasts. Morphologically <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> is very similar to <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces octosporus</dfn>, but displays unique differences phenotypically and genotypically.
  
  
=Genome Structure=<ref>4</ref>  
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=Genome Structure=4   
  
<dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> contains a deviation of the D1/D2 divergent domain of the LSU rRNA gene, the RNA subunit of Ribonuclease P (Rnase P), and the ITS elements from <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces octosporus</dfn>. <ref>5</ref>, <ref>6</ref>, <ref>7</ref>, <ref>8</ref>, <ref>9</ref> Genome sequencing between the two species revealed the following genetic differences in the aforementioned loci:
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<dfn>Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus</dfn> contains a deviation of the D1/D2 divergent domain of the LSU rRNA gene, the RNA subunit of Ribonuclease P (Rnase P), and the ITS elements from <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces octosporus</dfn>. 5,6,7,8,9, Genome sequencing between the two species revealed the following genetic differences in the aforementioned loci:
  
  
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=Metabolism, Physical Structure, & Function <ref>4</ref>=
 
=Metabolism, Physical Structure, & Function <ref>4</ref>=
  
Unlike <dfn>Saccharomycotina</dfn>, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source, suggesting independent evolution. The gene content  between budding yeasts and fission yeasts indicates that the glyoxylate cycle, loss of glycogen biosynthesis, fewer glycolytic paralogs, loss of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, lack of expanded <dfn>adh</dfn> genes, and lack of transcriptional regulators of glucose repression are what prohibit fission yeasts from using ethanol as a primary carbon source unlike <dfn>Saccharomycotina</dfn>.<ref>10</ref> The loss of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and <dfn>adh</dfn> genes prevents the use of pyruvate for respiration, producing ethanol not as a consumable by-product, but as a waste product. The expression of <dfn>ald</dfn> genes in fission yeast indicates there is an alternative pathway for acetyl-coA production in fission yeast and that fission yeast are highly dependent upon glucose rather than ethanol for acetyl-coA manufacture.<ref>11</ref>  
+
Unlike <dfn>Saccharomycotina</dfn>, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source, suggesting independent evolution. The gene content  between budding yeasts and fission yeasts indicates that the glyoxylate cycle, loss of glycogen biosynthesis, fewer glycolytic paralogs, loss of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, lack of expanded <dfn>adh</dfn> genes, and lack of transcriptional regulators of glucose repression are what prohibit fission yeasts from using ethanol as a primary carbon source unlike <dfn>Saccharomycotina</dfn>.10  The loss of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and <dfn>adh</dfn> genes prevents the use of pyruvate for respiration, producing ethanol not as a consumable by-product, but as a waste product. The expression of <dfn>ald</dfn> genes in fission yeast indicates there is an alternative pathway for acetyl-coA production in fission yeast and that fission yeast are highly dependent upon glucose rather than ethanol for acetyl-coA manufacture.11   
  
 
<dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>cryophilus</dfn> growth occurs at the optimal temperature of 25°C, compared to the optimal temperature of 32°C for <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces japonicas</dfn>, <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</dfn>, and <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>octosporus</dfn>. Additionally, <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>cryophilus</dfn> cannot proliferate at temperatures higher than 25°C, while <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>japonicas</dfn>, <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>pombe</dfn>, and <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>octosporus</dfn> have a growth range of 18°C to 36°C.
 
<dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>cryophilus</dfn> growth occurs at the optimal temperature of 25°C, compared to the optimal temperature of 32°C for <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces japonicas</dfn>, <dfn>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</dfn>, and <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>octosporus</dfn>. Additionally, <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>cryophilus</dfn> cannot proliferate at temperatures higher than 25°C, while <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>japonicas</dfn>, <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>pombe</dfn>, and <dfn>S</dfn>. <dfn>octosporus</dfn> have a growth range of 18°C to 36°C.

Revision as of 01:36, 4 June 2013

Classification

Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Taphrinomycotina
Class: Schizosaccharomycetes
Order: Schizosaccharomycetales
Family: Schizosaccharomycetaceae
Genus: Schizosaccharomyces
Species: cryophilus


Background & Description

Fission yeast are unicellular eukaryotes that undergo division by medial fission rather than budding.1 Normally, propagation is mitotic as haploids, but under nitrogen starvation, sexual union between two haploid cells of opposite mating-types occurs, thus deriving the name fission yeast. The first physical step in the process is cellular elongation and the formation of conjugation tubes towards pheromones secreted by opposite mating-type cells.2 Conjugation of two opposite mating-types creates a diploid zygote which will undergo meiosis to produce four haploid nuclei which become encapsulated by spore walls.3

Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus is specific fission yeast of the genus Schizosaccharomyces that grows at lower temperatures than other known fission yeasts. Morphologically Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus is very similar to Schizosaccharomyces octosporus, but displays unique differences phenotypically and genotypically.


=Genome Structure=4

Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus contains a deviation of the D1/D2 divergent domain of the LSU rRNA gene, the RNA subunit of Ribonuclease P (Rnase P), and the ITS elements from Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. 5,6,7,8,9, Genome sequencing between the two species revealed the following genetic differences in the aforementioned loci:


D1/D2 divergent domain of the LSU rRNA gene: 25 nucleotide substitutions and 3 indels

RNA subunit on RNase P: 15 nucleotide substitutions and 3 indels

ITS elements: ITS1: 95 nucleotide substitutions and 66 indels ITS2: 84 nucleotide substitutions and 51 indels


Restriction enzyme digests can also be used in conjunction with gel electrophoresis to confirm differing band patterns between S. cryophilus and S. octosporus.


Metabolism, Physical Structure, & Function [1]

Unlike Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source, suggesting independent evolution. The gene content between budding yeasts and fission yeasts indicates that the glyoxylate cycle, loss of glycogen biosynthesis, fewer glycolytic paralogs, loss of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, lack of expanded adh genes, and lack of transcriptional regulators of glucose repression are what prohibit fission yeasts from using ethanol as a primary carbon source unlike Saccharomycotina.10 The loss of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and adh genes prevents the use of pyruvate for respiration, producing ethanol not as a consumable by-product, but as a waste product. The expression of ald genes in fission yeast indicates there is an alternative pathway for acetyl-coA production in fission yeast and that fission yeast are highly dependent upon glucose rather than ethanol for acetyl-coA manufacture.11

S. cryophilus growth occurs at the optimal temperature of 25°C, compared to the optimal temperature of 32°C for Schizosaccharomyces japonicas, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and S. octosporus. Additionally, S. cryophilus cannot proliferate at temperatures higher than 25°C, while S. japonicas, S. pombe, and S. octosporus have a growth range of 18°C to 36°C.

Colonies of S. cryophilus on agar are cream-colored and almost butter-like in appearance, which contrasts to the smooth, rounded colonies of S. pombe and the foam-like colonies of S. octosporus. Other differences between S. cryophilus and S. octosporus include the ability to ferment D-glucose, maltose, and sucrose in S. cryophilus as in S. pombe, but not D-galactose, as well as the ability to hydrolyze urea in S. cryophilus and S. pombe.

References

[2]

[3] Leupold U. Sex appeal in fission yeast. Current Genetics. 1987; 12:543–545.

[4] Tanaka K, Hirata A. Ascospore development in the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. japonicas. J Cell Sci. 1982; 56:263–279. [PubMed: 7166567]

[5] Helston RM, Box JA, Tang W, Baumann P (2010) Schizosaccharomyces cryophilus sp. nov., a new species of fission yeast. FEMS Yeast Res 10: 779–786.

[6] Cho M, Yoon JH, Kim SB, Park YH. Application of the ribonuclease P (RNase P) RNA gene sequence for phylogenetic analysis of the genus Saccharomonospora. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998; 48(Pt 4):1223–1230. [PubMed: 9828424]

[7] Haas ES, Brown JW. Evolutionary variation in bacterial RNase P RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998; 26:4093–4099. [PubMed: 9722626]

[8] Kurtzman CP, Robnett CJ. Identification and phylogeny of ascomycetous yeasts from analysis of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA partial sequences. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology. 1998; 73:331–371.

[9] Iwen PC, Hinrichs SH, Rupp ME. Utilization of the internal transcribed spacer regions as molecular targets to detect and identify human fungal pathogens. Med Mycol. 2002; 40:87–109.[PubMed: 11860017]

[10] Nilsson RH, Kristiansson E, Ryberg M, Hallenberg N, Larsson KH. Intraspecific ITS variability in the Kingdom Fungi as expressed in the international sequence databases and its implications for molecular species identification. Evolutionary Bioinformatics. 2008; 2008:193–201.

[11] Rhind N et al., Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts. Science. 2011 May 20; 332(6032): 930–936.

[12] DeRisi JL, Iyer VR, Brown PO. Science. 1997; 278:680. [PubMed: 9381177]

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