Sexual Reproduction of Pathogenic Eukaryotes

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Flourescence micrograph of Giardia trophozite stained with antibiodies against tubine (green), hilighting its eight flagella, and with DAPI (blue) to visualize the DNA in the two nuclei. By Marianne Poxleitner, University of California, Berkeley. Logsdon, J.M. 2008. Evolutionary Genetics: Sex happens in Giardia. Current Biology 18: R66-R68.
Organization of MAT locus of Tetrahymena thermophila . Six incomplete mating type genes are arranged head to head on the chromosomes with exons seperating complete mating type genes. During formation of the somatic nucleus, genomic rearrangement creates completes a full mating type gene and the others are deleted. Cervantes, M.D., E.P. Hamilton, J. Xiong, M.J. Lawson, D. Yuan, M. Hadjithomas, W. Miao, and E. Orias. 2013. Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deleton in Tetrahymena thermophile. PLOS Biology.j 11(3): e1001518.
Hypothetical model of homologous recombination during diplomixis of Giardia intestinalis . Carpenter, M.L., Z.J. Assaf, S. Gourguechon, and W.Z. Cande. 2012. Nuclear inheritance and genetic exchange without meiosis in the binucleate parasite Giardia intestinalis. Journal of Cell Science 125: 2523-2532.