Difference between revisions of "Shock chlorination"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
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==Microbial agents==
 
==Microbial agents==
Frequently, microbial factors infiltrate water sources through fecal matter. Many types of bacterial pathogens can initiate waterborne illnesses, including enteric bacteria, protozoa, or viruses<sup>4</sup>. <br>
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Frequently, microbial factors infiltrate water sources through fecal matter. Many types of bacterial pathogens can initiate waterborne illnesses, including enteric bacteria, protozoa, or viruses<sup>1</sup>. <br>
 
===<i>Helicobacter pylori</i>===
 
===<i>Helicobacter pylori</i>===
 
[[Image:Helicobacterpylori0.jpeg|thumb|300px|right|Electron micrograph of <i>Helicobacter pylori</i>, a microbe commonly found in public water sources. Courtesy: [http://mib.uga.edu/research/labs/hoover Timothy Hoover (Franklin College)]]]
 
[[Image:Helicobacterpylori0.jpeg|thumb|300px|right|Electron micrograph of <i>Helicobacter pylori</i>, a microbe commonly found in public water sources. Courtesy: [http://mib.uga.edu/research/labs/hoover Timothy Hoover (Franklin College)]]]
 
<i>[http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Helicobacter_pylori Helicobacter pylori]</i> is known to cause gastritis and peptic ulcers.
 
<i>[http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Helicobacter_pylori Helicobacter pylori]</i> is known to cause gastritis and peptic ulcers.
 
<br>
 
<br>
Studies done in Peru<sup>1</sup> and Japan<sup>2</sup> have shown the presence of the bacteria in public water sources, proving its possibility as a waterborne microbe.
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Studies done in Peru<sup>2</sup> and Japan<sup>3</sup> have shown the presence of the bacteria in public water sources, proving its possibility as a waterborne microbe.
  
 
===<i>Cryptosporidium</i>===
 
===<i>Cryptosporidium</i>===
 
[[Image:Cryptosporidium1.jpeg|thumb|300px|right|Immunofluorescence of <i>Cryptosporidium</i>, the microbe that caused an epidemic in Milwaukee in 1993. Over 104 deaths were credited to the waterborne microbe . Courtesy: [http://www.epa.gov/microbes/cpt_seq1.html H.D.A Lindquist (EPA)]]]
 
[[Image:Cryptosporidium1.jpeg|thumb|300px|right|Immunofluorescence of <i>Cryptosporidium</i>, the microbe that caused an epidemic in Milwaukee in 1993. Over 104 deaths were credited to the waterborne microbe . Courtesy: [http://www.epa.gov/microbes/cpt_seq1.html H.D.A Lindquist (EPA)]]]
<i>[http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium parvum]</i> is a type of parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. Unlike <i>Helicobacter pylori</i>, however, <i>Cryptosporidium</i> has been proven to be unresponsive to chlorination<sup>3</sup>.
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<i>[http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium parvum]</i> is a type of parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. Unlike <i>Helicobacter pylori</i>, however, <i>Cryptosporidium</i> has been proven to be unresponsive to chlorination<sup>4</sup>.
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
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==References==
 
==References==
<sup>1</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8612990 Hulten K., Han S.W., Enroth H., Klein P.D., Opekun A.R., Gilman R.H., Evans D.G., Graham D.Y., El-Zaatari F.A. "''Helicobacter pylori''  in the drinking water in Peru". ''Gastroenterology''. April 1996. Volume 110(4). p. 1031-5.]
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<sup>1</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12546197 Leclerc H., Schwartzbrod L., Dei-Cas E. "Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases". 2002. Crit Rev Microbiol 28(4). p. 371-409]
  
<sup>2</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11529557 Horiuchi T., Ohkusa T., Watanabe M., Kobayashi D., Miwa H., Eishi Y. "''Helicobacter pylori'' DNA in dirnking water in Japan". ''Microbol Immunol''. 2001. Volume 45(7). p. 515-9.]
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<sup>2</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8612990 Hulten K., Han S.W., Enroth H., Klein P.D., Opekun A.R., Gilman R.H., Evans D.G., Graham D.Y., El-Zaatari F.A. "''Helicobacter pylori'' in the drinking water in Peru". ''Gastroenterology''. April 1996. Volume 110(4). p. 1031-5.]
  
<sup>3</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC92099 Bukhari Z., Marshall M.M., Korich D.G., Fricker C.R., Smith H.V., Rosen J., Clancy J.L. "Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability". 1990. Appl Environ Microbiol 56(5). p. 1423-8.]
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<sup>3</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11529557 Horiuchi T., Ohkusa T., Watanabe M., Kobayashi D., Miwa H., Eishi Y. "''Helicobacter pylori'' DNA in dirnking water in Japan". ''Microbol Immunol''. 2001. Volume 45(7). p. 515-9.]
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<sup>4</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC92099 Bukhari Z., Marshall M.M., Korich D.G., Fricker C.R., Smith H.V., Rosen J., Clancy J.L. "Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability". 1990. Appl Environ Microbiol 56(5). p. 1423-8.]
  
<sup>4</sup> [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12546197 Leclerc H., Schwartzbrod L., Dei-Cas E. "Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases". 2002. Crit Rev Microbiol 28(4). p. 371-409]
 
  
 
<br>Edited by Erika Jensen, student of [mailto:slonczewski@kenyon.edu Joan Slonczewski] for [http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol116/biol116_Fall_2013.html BIOL 116 Information in Living Systems], 2013, [http://www.kenyon.edu/index.xml Kenyon College].
 
<br>Edited by Erika Jensen, student of [mailto:slonczewski@kenyon.edu Joan Slonczewski] for [http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol116/biol116_Fall_2013.html BIOL 116 Information in Living Systems], 2013, [http://www.kenyon.edu/index.xml Kenyon College].
  
 
<!--Do not edit or remove this line-->[[Category:Pages edited by students of Joan Slonczewski at Kenyon College]]
 
<!--Do not edit or remove this line-->[[Category:Pages edited by students of Joan Slonczewski at Kenyon College]]

Revision as of 16:39, 5 November 2013

Introduction

From swimming pools to wells, chlorine is a common chemical used to disinfect water sources.

Microbial agents

Frequently, microbial factors infiltrate water sources through fecal matter. Many types of bacterial pathogens can initiate waterborne illnesses, including enteric bacteria, protozoa, or viruses1.

Helicobacter pylori

Electron micrograph of Helicobacter pylori, a microbe commonly found in public water sources. Courtesy: Timothy Hoover (Franklin College)

Helicobacter pylori is known to cause gastritis and peptic ulcers.
Studies done in Peru2 and Japan3 have shown the presence of the bacteria in public water sources, proving its possibility as a waterborne microbe.

Cryptosporidium

Immunofluorescence of Cryptosporidium, the microbe that caused an epidemic in Milwaukee in 1993. Over 104 deaths were credited to the waterborne microbe . Courtesy: H.D.A Lindquist (EPA)

Cryptosporidium parvum is a type of parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. Unlike Helicobacter pylori, however, Cryptosporidium has been proven to be unresponsive to chlorination4.

Methods

Commercial

Domestic

Success rates

Alternative methods

Scientists are not content with shock chlorination. As technology advances, methods to improve both testing and disinfection are created.

References

1 Leclerc H., Schwartzbrod L., Dei-Cas E. "Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases". 2002. Crit Rev Microbiol 28(4). p. 371-409

2 Hulten K., Han S.W., Enroth H., Klein P.D., Opekun A.R., Gilman R.H., Evans D.G., Graham D.Y., El-Zaatari F.A. "Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru". Gastroenterology. April 1996. Volume 110(4). p. 1031-5.

3 Horiuchi T., Ohkusa T., Watanabe M., Kobayashi D., Miwa H., Eishi Y. "Helicobacter pylori DNA in dirnking water in Japan". Microbol Immunol. 2001. Volume 45(7). p. 515-9.

4 Bukhari Z., Marshall M.M., Korich D.G., Fricker C.R., Smith H.V., Rosen J., Clancy J.L. "Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability". 1990. Appl Environ Microbiol 56(5). p. 1423-8.



Edited by Erika Jensen, student of Joan Slonczewski for BIOL 116 Information in Living Systems, 2013, Kenyon College.