Difference between revisions of "Sodalis glossinidius"

From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
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[[Image:Tsetse_haemocyte_and_S_glossinidius.JPG|frame|right|Symbiotic lifestyle of ''S. glossinidius'' (purple) in the haemocyte of the tsetse fly. Image courtesy of Prof. Sue Welburn, University of Edinburgh.]]
 
[[Image:Tsetse_haemocyte_and_S_glossinidius.JPG|frame|right|Symbiotic lifestyle of ''S. glossinidius'' (purple) in the haemocyte of the tsetse fly. Image courtesy of Prof. Sue Welburn, University of Edinburgh.]]
  
''Sodalis glossinidius'' is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, filamentous bacteria. It is one of three endosymbionts for the tsetse fly ''Glossina morsitans morsitansis''. A secondary endosymbiont residing in the midgut, fat body and haemolymph of the insect. Though endosymbionts have proven to be difficult to culture, ''S. glossinidius'' was isolated and cultured from the haemolymph of G. m. morsitans in 1999. Colony morphology is uniform, with defined edges, and off-white. (7)
+
''Sodalis glossinidius'' is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, filamentous bacteria. It is one of three endosymbionts for the tsetse fly ''Glossina morsitans morsitansis''. A secondary endosymbiont residing in the midgut, fat body and haemolymph of the insect. Though endosymbionts have proven to be difficult to culture, ''S. glossinidius'' was isolated and cultured from the haemolymph of G. m. morsitans in 1999. ''S. glossinidius'' can gros intracellularly in ''Aedes albopictus'' or axenically in media containing a nitrogen source. This microaerophilic bacterium grows optimally with 5% oxygen and 95% carbon dioxide at 25 °C. Colony morphology is uniform, with defined edges, and off-white. (7)
 
 
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==
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Though most organisms of the Family Enterobacteriaceae are able to produce catalase, ''S. glossinidius'' is not. This is thought to be why this microbe requires a microaerophilic environment. (7)
 
Though most organisms of the Family Enterobacteriaceae are able to produce catalase, ''S. glossinidius'' is not. This is thought to be why this microbe requires a microaerophilic environment. (7)
  
 +
Strain M1T did produce a-galactosidase and b-N-acetylglucosaminidase. (7)
 +
 +
''S. glossinidius'' has a relatively inactive biochemical profile compared to other organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae, likely due to its path away from a free-existence. (7, and source one about degenerative)
  
 +
Interestingly, chitinase production
 +
by this micro-organism has been postulated to
 +
account for an increase in trypanosome susceptibility
 +
in laboratory colonies of G. m. morsitans known to
 +
harbour large numbers of S-endosymbionts (Welburn
 +
& Maudlin, 1991). In addition to b-N-acetylglucosa (7)
  
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==
 
==Cell structure and metabolism==

Revision as of 09:48, 30 August 2007

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Sodalis glossinidius

Classification

Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacteriales; Enterobacteriaceae (1)

Species

Sodalis glossinidius (1)

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.

Symbiotic lifestyle of S. glossinidius (purple) in the haemocyte of the tsetse fly. Image courtesy of Prof. Sue Welburn, University of Edinburgh.

Sodalis glossinidius is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, filamentous bacteria. It is one of three endosymbionts for the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitansis. A secondary endosymbiont residing in the midgut, fat body and haemolymph of the insect. Though endosymbionts have proven to be difficult to culture, S. glossinidius was isolated and cultured from the haemolymph of G. m. morsitans in 1999. S. glossinidius can gros intracellularly in Aedes albopictus or axenically in media containing a nitrogen source. This microaerophilic bacterium grows optimally with 5% oxygen and 95% carbon dioxide at 25 °C. Colony morphology is uniform, with defined edges, and off-white. (7)

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Though most organisms of the Family Enterobacteriaceae are able to produce catalase, S. glossinidius is not. This is thought to be why this microbe requires a microaerophilic environment. (7)

Strain M1T did produce a-galactosidase and b-N-acetylglucosaminidase. (7)

S. glossinidius has a relatively inactive biochemical profile compared to other organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae, likely due to its path away from a free-existence. (7, and source one about degenerative)

Interestingly, chitinase production by this micro-organism has been postulated to account for an increase in trypanosome susceptibility in laboratory colonies of G. m. morsitans known to harbour large numbers of S-endosymbionts (Welburn & Maudlin, 1991). In addition to b-N-acetylglucosa (7)

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

about if endosymbionts are gone, larvae cant develop


Sodalis glossinidius is one of three endosymbionts of the tsetse fly. [3]

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Sodalis glossinidius does not cause any known diseases. bacterial uptake due to protein secretory system [5]

Sodalis glossinidius, a maternally transmitted endosymbiont of tsetse flies, maintains two phylogenetically distinct type-III secretion systems encoded by chromosomal symbiosis regions designated SSR-1 and SSR-2. Although both symbiosis regions are closely related to extant pathogenicity islands with similar gene inventories, SSR-2 has undergone novel degenerative adaptations in the transition to mutualism. Notably, SSR-2 lacks homologs of genes found in SSR-1

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

Some of the recent research on Sodalis glossinidius:

"The endosymbionts of tsetse flies: manipulating host–parasite interactions" [6]




References

1. "Sodalis glossinidius". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 26 August 2007. [1]

2. Akman, L., Rio, R., Beard, C., and Aksoy, S. “Genome Size Determination and Coding Capacity of Sodalis glossinidius, an Enteric Symbiont of Tsetse Flies, as Revealed by Hybridization to Escherichia coli Gene Arrays.” Journal of Bacteriology. 2001. Volume 183.15 p. 4517-4525.[2]

3. Dale, C., Jones, T., and Pontes, M. "Degenerative Evolution and Functional Diversification of Type-III Secretion Systems in the Insect Endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius." Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2005. Volume 22.3 p. 758-766. [3]

4. Darby, A., Lagnel, J., Matthew, C., Bourtzis, K., Maudlin, I., and Welburn, S. "Extrachromosomal DNA of the Symbiont Sodalis glossinidius." Journal of Bacteriology. 2005. Volume 187.14 p. 5003-5007. [4]

5. Collazo, C., and Galán, J. "The invasion-associated type-III protein secretion system in Salmonella – a review." Gene. 1997. Volume 192.1 p. 51-59. [5]

6. Dale, C., and Welburn, S. "The endosymbionts of tsetse flies: manipulating host–parasite interactions." International Journal for Parasitology. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7F-42WX3BM-11&_user=4429&_coverDate=05%2F01%2F2001&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059602&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4429&md5=32e639fc02894be83034e1718707992f ?????????????

7. Dale, C., and Maudlin, I. "Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans." International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 1999. Volume 49 p. 267–275.

8.

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by Janet Melnyk, student of Rachel Larsen