Streptomyces coelicolor

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Template:Biorealm genus

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Actinobacteria Class: Actinobacteria Subclass: Actinobacteridae Order: Actinomycetales Suborder: Streptomycineae Family: Streptomycetaceae

Strains: Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

NCBI

Edited by Amy Stapp, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Genus

Genus species: Streptomyces coelicolor

Other Names: Streptothrix coelicolor, Cladothrix coelicolor, Nocardia coelicolor, Actinomyces coelicolor

Edited by Amy Stapp, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Description and significance

Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous, gram + bacteria, was first dubbed Streptothrix coelicolor in 1908 by R. Muller after he found it on a potato scab. Later, it became known as Streptomyces coelicolor. Streptomyces coelicolor, like the streptomyces genus in general, live in the soil. Streptomyces are responsible for much of the break down of organic material in the soil as well as the “earthy” smell of soil. They also live in colonies and have structural similarities to fungus. Colonies of Streptomyces coelicolor release pigments that are blue/green in alkali and red in acidic conditions, thereby giving the bacterial colonies those colors under the respective conditions. In a more neutral environment, streptomyces are generally identifiable by their pastel colors. Other differentiating characteristics of Streptomyces coelicolor are grayish-yellow aerial mycelium with no spirals, smooth spores, and no melanoid pigment. Streptomyces coelicolor are important bacteria and were sequenced because of their “adaptability to environmental stress”, “source of bioactive molecules for medicine and industry”, and “relat[ion] to human pathogens” (“From Mapping to Mining…” John Innes Center). Streptomyces coelicolor has a very similar core genome to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as well as some similarity to "Mycobacterium leprae", so it can be used to study these disease causing bacteria. The streptomyces genus is responsible for producing a majority of the antibiotics in use today, as well as some immunosuppressants and anti-tumor agents. Streptomyces coelicolor also has an interesting life-cycle that includes differentiation into aerial mycelium and spore formation.

Edited by Amy Stapp, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?


Replicon Type:

Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.


Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Edited by Neena Patel, student of Rachel Larsen at UCSD.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

"Streptomyces Coelicolor A3(2)". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 29 April 2007. NCBI.

Conn, Jean E. “The Pigment Production of Actinomyces Coelicolor and A. Violaceus-Ruber”. Journal of Bacteriology. 1943. Volume 46. p. 133-149. Link to Article

“From Mapping to Mining the Streptomyces Genome”. John Innes Centre Website. 2001. Link to Article

Thompson, Charles J., Dorris Fink, and Liem D. Nguyen. “Principles of Microbial Alchemy: Insights from the Streptomyces coelicolor Genome Sequence”. Genome Biology 3.7. (2002) Link to Article on PubMed

Kutzner, Hans J and Selman A. Waksman. “Streptomyces coelicolor Muller and Streptomyces violaceoruber Waksman and Curtis, Two Distinctly Different Organisms.” Journal of Bacteriology 78.4 (1959) p. 528-538. Link to Article

Schaechter, Moselio, John L. Ingraham and Frederick C. Neidhardt. Microbe. Washington D.C.: ASM Press, 2006.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano