Streptomyces neyagawaensis Yamamoto et al 1960.
Classification [8, 22, 29]
Higher Order Taxa
Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Actinobacteria Class: Actinobacteria Order: Actinomycetales Family: Streptomycetaceae
Genus & Species:
Genus: Streptomyces Group Diastatochromogenes Species: neyagawaensis
Description and Significance
Named for the city of Neyagawa, Osaka Prefecture, Japan Isolated from a soil sample; described and named in 1960 by a team led by Hiroichi Yamamoto of Takeda Chemical Industries Ltd. [21, 22]
Elesawy and Szabó  proposed the assignment of S. neyagawaensis to the Diastatochromogenes cluster, which also includes S. bottropensis, S. diastatochromogenes, S. eurythermus, S. griseosporeus and S. scabiei. This was affirmed in 1996 by Takeuchi et al  and in 2004 by Lanoot 
In 1983, Williams et al  published a paper where they arranged Streptomyces species by clusters, which took into account spore morphology and color alongside genetic similarities. S. neyagawaensis (along with 37 other species) was assigned to Cluster 18, based on the characteristics of S. cyaneus. Cluster 18 contained the following: S. azureus, S. bellus, S. caelestis, S. chartreusis, S. coeruleofuscus, S. coeruleorubidus, S. coerulescens, S. curacoi, S. lanatus, S. arenae, S. echinatus, S. griseochromogenes, S. afghaniensis, S. janthinus, S. longisporus, S. purpurascens, S. roseoviolaceus, S. violarus, S. violatus, S. cinnabarinus, S. hawaiiensis, S. luteogriseus, S. neyagawaensis, S. resistomycificus, S. collinus, S. paradoxus, S. griseorubiginosus, S. pseudovenezulae, S. fumanus and Str. sp. Soil isolate M1.
In 2005, Choi et al published a chart outlining S. neyagawaensis and its phylogenetic relationships .
In 2012, Labeda et al [19, 20] made S. neyagawaensis part a clade together with the following species: S. decoyinicus, S. hygroscopicus ossamyceticus, S. ipomoeae, and S. torulosus.
Also in 2012, Rong and Hwang  made S. neyagawaensis part of a clade with S. ipomoeae, S. hydroscopicus ossamyceticus, S. torulosus, S. caerulaeus, and S. phaeofacens
Genomic Structure The genus Streptomyces has what is believed to be one of thee largest genomes of any known microbial group. Streptomyces genomes contain the following common features : • genomes are twice as large as other related genera (e.g. Mycobacterium) • 6 colonies of the ribosomal RNA operon • 6 Mbp core region, with 2 attached “arm” regions to code for conditionally adaptive traits • linear shape • >70% guanine-cytosine nucleotide base pairs, which imparts increased thermodynamic stability. Per Williams et al , C+G base pairing can account for 69-78% of the Streptomyces genome • gene density and extensive overlapping of coding sequences, making for difficult reconstruction • frequent horizontal gene transfer, leading to a higher than average number of pathogens
Cell Structure and Metabolism
Streptomyces is a filamentous, gram-positive species. Smooth spores germinate to produce a grayish substrate mycelium, followed by white aerial hyphae which form spiral spore chains. [2, 10, 14, 16]
/Users/opmlab/Desktop/Picture clipping.pictClipping /Users/opmlab/Desktop/Picture clipping 2.pictClippingStreptomyces neyagawaensis Yamamoto et al 1960.
An important component of the cell wall of S. neyagawaensis is LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate, aka LL-DAP [4, 14, 16], an amino acid derivative of lysine. LL-DAP is critical for the manufacture of new cell wall proteoglycan.
Kuntzner  noted that S. neyagawaensis can digest cellulose and lignin. In a study identifying it as a component of the gut microbiome of Emerald Ash Borer , it was found to play a role in the enzymatic digestion of carboxymethyl-cellulose. In addition to hydrolyzing casein and digesting carboxymethyl-cellulose, S. neyagawaensis utilizes the following compounds as carbon sources [4, 14]: Myo-Inositol, D-Mannitol, L-Arabinose, D-Fructose, D-Glucose, L-Rhamnose, D-Xylose, Sucrose and Raffinose.
Wirth and Ulrich  measured the cellulolytic capabilities of 39 strains of Streptomyces. Out of the 39 isolates, 11 were capable of degrading all substrates, 17 degrade carboxymethyl-cellulose alone, and 11 digested both CMC and colloidal cellulose.
S. neyagawaensis is an aerobic species, commonly found in soils, but occasionally isolated from aquatic environments and insect guts.
In 2008, Vasanthakumar et al  identified S. neyagawaensis (along with S. ipomoeae, Burkholderia cepacia, and Erwinia persicinus as part of the gut microbiome of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), where the complex acted as digesters of carboxy methylcellulose.
S. neyagawaensis itself is not phytopathogenic 
The following members of the Diastatochromagenes group have been identified as pathogens of potato and sweet potato: S. scabiei, S. europaeiscabiei, S. stelliscabiei (Potato Scab) and S. ipomoeae (Sweet Potato Soft Rot). According to Bukhalid et al  pathogenicity within this clade is governed via horizontal transfer of the nec1 gene, which produces a “phytopathogenic island” within the genome.
Application to Biotechnology
• Strain HYJ0209-MK50 (aquatic isolate, Lake Juam, Korea,) [4, 27] o Controls the biomass of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-298, which was strongly suppressed, by up to 84.5%. This strain was also effective against a wide range of algae, including Chlorella sp., the diatoms Aulacoseira granulata and Stephanodiscus hantzschii, and four cyanobacteria, M. aeruginosa NIES-44, Anabaena cylindrica, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Oscillatoria sancta. • Strain SL-387 (soil isolate, Korea)[5,6] o Source of MR-387A & MR-387B—peptide inhibitors , part of treatment regimen for adult non-lymphocytic leukemia and metastatic fibrosarcoma • Strain N60 (Egypt)  o Source of Anthracidin A—algae and fish toxin • Strains JCM-4796 & NBRC-13477 (soil isolates, Japan) [11, 12, 21, 23, 35] o Source of Concanamycin A (Folimycin) –anti-inflamatory, potential treatment for osteoporosis • Strain NR0577  o Source of Tetrafibricin [25, 26]—anti-thrombosis drug • Strain 38D10 (soil isolate) [16, 23] o Source of Cocanamycin B— Laboratory trials found it effective against the following plant pathogens: Phytophthora capsici, Ph. parasitica, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria mali, Fusarium solani, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Additionally, Cocanamycin B was found effective against Candida albicans IFO 1594. • Var. orobolere Source of isoluteolin (Orobol) -- an isoflavone used to assess signal transduction pathways in various cell systems; as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, it may be able to inhibit the growth of cancerous cells
Streptomyces is easily collected for in situ culture w/ a trap formed of two permeable membranes set on soil surface; organisms selectively penetrate and form colonies (method described) numerous unusual strains captured by this method, incl the soil dwelling Str. Neyagawaensis (using agar trap) 
Characterization of the antialgal S. neyagawaensis strain HYJ0209-MK50 by culturing at 40 °C on ISP (International Streptomyces Project) media  ISP media Substrate mycelium Aerial mycelium Pigment Tryptone-yeast extract (ISP 1) ++ Gray ++ White − Yeast extract-malt extract (ISP 2) + White + White − Glycerol-asparagine (ISP 5) ++ White − − Peptone-yeast extract-iron (ISP 6) + White − Olive brown Tyrosine (ISP 7) ++ Yellow − Olive brown Nitrate (ISP 8) + White ++ White − ISP 9 ++ Yellow + White −
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