Difference between revisions of "Suppression of Peptidoglycan Remodeling"

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Many antibiotics target this component to kill the bacteria. For example, penicillin binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits the synthesis of peptidoglycan, weakening the cell wall of bacteria. It has been discovered that a new mechanism could be used by antibiotics on peptidoglycan— blocking the action of autolysins, a peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for remodeling the bacterial cell wall during growth. Studying how this new mechanism works could give us insight into developing new antibiotics against resistant strains.
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Many antibiotics target this component to kill the bacteria. For example, penicillin binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits the synthesis of peptidoglycan, weakening the cell wall of bacteria. It has been discovered that a new mechanism could be used by antibiotics on peptidoglycan— blocking the action of autolysins, a peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for remodeling the bacterial cell wall during growth.<ref name=antiremo> [https://www-nature-com.libproxy.kenyon.edu/articles/s41586-020-1990-9] Culp, Elizabeth J., Nicholas Waglechner, Wenliang Wang, Aline A. Fiebig-Comyn, Yen-Pang Hsu, Kalinka Koteva, David Sychantha, Brian K. Coombes, Michael S. Van Nieuwenhze, Yves V. Brun, and Gerard D. Wright. 2020. “Evolution-Guided Discovery of Antibiotics That Inhibit Peptidoglycan Remodelling.” <i>Nature</i> 578(7796):582–87. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-1990-9.</ref> Studying how this new mechanism works could give us insight into developing new antibiotics against resistant strains.
 
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Sample citations: <ref name=aa>[http://www.plosbiology.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000005&representation=PDF Hodgkin, J. and Partridge, F.A. "<i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> meets microsporidia: the nematode killers from Paris." 2008. PLoS Biology 6:2634-2637.]</ref>
 
Sample citations: <ref name=aa>[http://www.plosbiology.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000005&representation=PDF Hodgkin, J. and Partridge, F.A. "<i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> meets microsporidia: the nematode killers from Paris." 2008. PLoS Biology 6:2634-2637.]</ref>

Revision as of 01:13, 8 April 2021

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By [Frank Zhao]

Introduction

Components of Gram-negative Cell Wall.By Linda Bruslind. [2].
Components of Gram-positive Cell Wall.By Linda Bruslind. [3].


Peptidoglycan is a polymer made of sugars and amino acids that forms a layer outside the plasma membrane of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycans are cross-linked by peptides, serving as the cell wall that protects bacteria from the environment. Peptidoglycan limits the volume of the cell and thus it generates turgor pressure as the water rushes into the cell.[1] Gram-positive bacteria obtain a thicker peptidoglycan layer than Gram-negative bacteria but this layer is crucial to the survival of both types of bacteria.[2]


Many antibiotics target this component to kill the bacteria. For example, penicillin binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits the synthesis of peptidoglycan, weakening the cell wall of bacteria. It has been discovered that a new mechanism could be used by antibiotics on peptidoglycan— blocking the action of autolysins, a peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for remodeling the bacterial cell wall during growth.[3] Studying how this new mechanism works could give us insight into developing new antibiotics against resistant strains.
Sample citations: [4] [5]

A citation code consists of a hyperlinked reference within "ref" begin and end codes.
To repeat the citation for other statements, the reference needs to have a names: "<ref name=aa>"
The repeated citation works like this, with a back slash.[4]

Structure and Function

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

Every point of information REQUIRES CITATION using the citation tool shown above.

Structure of Peptidoglycan.By Linda Bruslind. [4].
Electron Microscopy of Purified Sacculi. [5].

Biosynthesis

Include some current research, with at least one figure showing data.

Inhibitive Antibiotics Targeting Peptidoglycan

A vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated from the patient after failed vancomycin therapy.[6].


Corbomycin and Complestatin

Bacteria treated with corbomycin or complestatin shows a twisted phenotype and failed to divide into progeny cells.[7].

Conclusion

References

  1. Slonczewski, J., and Foster J. W.. Microbiology: An Evolving Science. New York
  2. Anon. n.d. “Bacteria.” Basic Biology. Retrieved April 8, 2021
  3. [1] Culp, Elizabeth J., Nicholas Waglechner, Wenliang Wang, Aline A. Fiebig-Comyn, Yen-Pang Hsu, Kalinka Koteva, David Sychantha, Brian K. Coombes, Michael S. Van Nieuwenhze, Yves V. Brun, and Gerard D. Wright. 2020. “Evolution-Guided Discovery of Antibiotics That Inhibit Peptidoglycan Remodelling.” Nature 578(7796):582–87. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-1990-9.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hodgkin, J. and Partridge, F.A. "Caenorhabditis elegans meets microsporidia: the nematode killers from Paris." 2008. PLoS Biology 6:2634-2637.
  5. Bartlett et al.: Oncolytic viruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Molecular Cancer 2013 12:103.



Authored for BIOL 238 Microbiology, taught by Joan Slonczewski, 2021, Kenyon College.