Template:Biorealm Genus Prochlorococcus

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Biorealm Genus Prochlorococcus

Genome structure

Because of its small size, Prochlorococcus usually has a small genome1. It actually maintains the smallest genome of all cyanobacteria, with only 1.7 Mb1. This may be considered an adaptation because in the ocean (environment of this organism) there is not an excess nitrogen or phosphorus, which are essential in the production of nucleotides1. There are generally two strains of this bacteria found in the ocean. The low-light adapted and high- light adapted strains are a result of the difference of light levels at different depths in the ocean1. The low- light adapted strains have extra genes for the antenna complex protein, which is where the chlorophyll gets its energy from light1. These low-light adapted strains genetically produce chlorophyll b as opposed to chlorophyll a (high-light adapted strain) because chlorophyll b can be more helpful at a with a wider spectrum of light, which is essential when light is scarce1. By having genes for more chlorophyll b and antenna protein complex, these bacteria are able to thrive even at depths of up to 200m1. These low-light adapted strains have a lot more variation when it comes to there genome, probably as an adaptation for the tougher environment that the deeper ocean poses1. The ocean is a very stable environment, thus these microbes have seen a decrease in the amount of stress- related and housekeeping genes, as compared to the genome of other cyanobacteria1. The genes for antenna protein however are much increased, as we discussed their characteristics that are essential to this bacteria1. The genome of these bacteria are essential in the studying of photosynthetic bacteria, and their response to changing environments because of their unique and decreased genome1.

Cell structure and metabolism

Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.


Ecology

Habitat; symbiosis; contributions to the environment.

Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

Cool Factor

Describe something you fing "cool" about this microbe.

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Iris Keren