Difference between revisions of "The Implications of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Development and Epitope Targeting for HIV Vaccine Development"

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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
<br>Introduce the research question of your paper. What is known? How does current research extend what we know? Why is it interesting?<br>
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<br>Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier discovered Human immunodeficiency virus to be the causative agent of Autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984 only a few years after the initial HIV outbreak across the world. However, unlike other viruses known to cause epidemics across the world, such as polio, no effective vaccine for HIV has been discovered through classical strategies. HIV’s high rate of mutation, greater than any other characterized human pathogen,  is thought to be responsible for the repeated failure of attempts to develop a vaccine. Due to the high rate of mutations, the target sites of the antibodies, the epitopes, are constantly changing. Furthermore, an antibody with specific binding to a single epitope may lose its binding affinity in response to mutations in a target epitope. The decrease in binding affinity eliminates the neutralizing ability of the antibody and allows viral progression to proceed unmitigated.
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However, in a select percentage of chronically infected HIV patients, potent antibodies known as broadly neutralizing antibodies have been shown to effectively bind a wide range of distinct epitopes. The increased range of binding affinity allows a single clade of similar broadly neutralizing antibodies to neutralize many distinct mutations of HIV. The characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies have attracted the attention of vaccine researchers who believe that a vaccine that causes the development of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies could effectively prevent early HIV infection. Research to better understand the development of HIV antibodies and the structures of their epitopes has given weight to the belief that broadly neutralizing antibodies have the potential to effectively prevent early HIV progression. The following is a summary of the current research on antibody epitopes and antibody development and of the further characterization needed to effectively translate such research into an effective vaccine. <br>
  
  

Revision as of 16:07, 9 November 2014


By Sean Smith

Introduction


Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier discovered Human immunodeficiency virus to be the causative agent of Autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984 only a few years after the initial HIV outbreak across the world. However, unlike other viruses known to cause epidemics across the world, such as polio, no effective vaccine for HIV has been discovered through classical strategies. HIV’s high rate of mutation, greater than any other characterized human pathogen, is thought to be responsible for the repeated failure of attempts to develop a vaccine. Due to the high rate of mutations, the target sites of the antibodies, the epitopes, are constantly changing. Furthermore, an antibody with specific binding to a single epitope may lose its binding affinity in response to mutations in a target epitope. The decrease in binding affinity eliminates the neutralizing ability of the antibody and allows viral progression to proceed unmitigated. However, in a select percentage of chronically infected HIV patients, potent antibodies known as broadly neutralizing antibodies have been shown to effectively bind a wide range of distinct epitopes. The increased range of binding affinity allows a single clade of similar broadly neutralizing antibodies to neutralize many distinct mutations of HIV. The characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies have attracted the attention of vaccine researchers who believe that a vaccine that causes the development of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies could effectively prevent early HIV infection. Research to better understand the development of HIV antibodies and the structures of their epitopes has given weight to the belief that broadly neutralizing antibodies have the potential to effectively prevent early HIV progression. The following is a summary of the current research on antibody epitopes and antibody development and of the further characterization needed to effectively translate such research into an effective vaccine.


Topic 1


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Figure 1) Here is a striking example of plastic waste accumulation in Marine Environments http://www.usgreenchamber.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/plastic-beach.jpg.

Topic 2


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Figure 1) Here is a striking example of plastic waste accumulation in Marine Environments http://www.usgreenchamber.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/plastic-beach.jpg.

Topic 3


Include some current research in each topic, with at least one figure showing data.

Conclusion


Overall paper length should be 2,000 (Draft 1), 3,000 words (Final), with at least 3 figures.

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Joan Slonczewski for BIOL 375 Microbiology, 2014, Kenyon College.