Difference between revisions of "Thermotoga neapolitana"

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==Description and significance==
 
==Description and significance==
  
Thermotoga neapolitana cells are gram-negative rods, aproximately 1.5 to 11 ~tm long and 0.6 Ixm wide, and can occur singly and in pairs.  They have an unusually thick periplasmic cell wall layer, which, when compared with characteristic gram-negative cell walls, is covered with a more electron-dense outer layer.  Cells are immotile, possesing no flagella.  They are surrounded by a sheath-like outer structure that usually balloons over the ends; a "toga," as it were, from which the genus name is derived.  Its species name is in reference to the location of its original isolation in 1986:  a shallow marine sediment in a volcanic region near Lucrino, Bay of Naples, Italy.   
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'' Thermotoga neapolitana '' cells are gram-negative rods, approximately 1.5 to 11 ~tm long and 0.6 Ixm wide, and can occur singly and in pairs.  They have an unusually thick periplasmic cell wall layer, which, when compared with characteristic gram-negative cell walls, is covered with a more electron-dense outer layer.  Cells are immotile, possessing no flagella.  They are surrounded by a sheath-like outer structure that usually balloons over the ends; a "toga," as it were, from which the genus name is derived.  Its species name is in reference to the location of its original isolation in 1986:  a shallow marine sediment in a volcanic region near Lucrino, Bay of Naples, Italy.  As one would expect from its location of origin, '' T. neapolitana '' is an extremely thermophilic bacteria, growing between 55 and 90 degrees Celsius, with an optimum growth temperature of 77 degrees Celsius.  It is viable between pH 5.5 and 9; at pH 7 its growth is at a maximum.
  
 
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There are three lines of reasoning that outline the significance of '' T. neapolitana '' having its genome sequenced.  Firstly, due to its requiring only minimal anoxic precautions, and its ability to be grown on both solid and liquid media via materials that are readily available, the utilization of '' T. neapolitana '' is a preferable method for understanding the basic molecular biology of extreme thermophiles.  Secondly, as it is closely related to the type species '' Thermotoga maratima, '' comparison of these two genomes will enable researchers to identify chromosomal segments that have undergone DNA rearrangements after the lineages diverged from a common ancestor.  Lastly, current research has implicated '' T. neapolitana '' as a potentially viable source of hydrogen productionCurrent methods of hydrogen production are both costly and environmentally unfriendly; in a market in which hydrogen demands are expected to only increase, a new biological method for hydrogen production is very desirable.  Sequencing '' T. neapolitana's '' genome will further these ends by allowing for deeper understanding of its nature.
 
 
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequencedDescribe how and where it was isolated.
 
Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
 
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==

Revision as of 02:57, 29 August 2007

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Thermotoga neapolitana

Classification

Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Thermotogae; Thermotogae; Thermotogales; Thermotogaceae; Thermotoga

Species

NCBI: Taxonomy

Thermotoga neapolitana

Description and significance

Thermotoga neapolitana cells are gram-negative rods, approximately 1.5 to 11 ~tm long and 0.6 Ixm wide, and can occur singly and in pairs. They have an unusually thick periplasmic cell wall layer, which, when compared with characteristic gram-negative cell walls, is covered with a more electron-dense outer layer. Cells are immotile, possessing no flagella. They are surrounded by a sheath-like outer structure that usually balloons over the ends; a "toga," as it were, from which the genus name is derived. Its species name is in reference to the location of its original isolation in 1986: a shallow marine sediment in a volcanic region near Lucrino, Bay of Naples, Italy. As one would expect from its location of origin, T. neapolitana is an extremely thermophilic bacteria, growing between 55 and 90 degrees Celsius, with an optimum growth temperature of 77 degrees Celsius. It is viable between pH 5.5 and 9; at pH 7 its growth is at a maximum.

There are three lines of reasoning that outline the significance of T. neapolitana having its genome sequenced. Firstly, due to its requiring only minimal anoxic precautions, and its ability to be grown on both solid and liquid media via materials that are readily available, the utilization of T. neapolitana is a preferable method for understanding the basic molecular biology of extreme thermophiles. Secondly, as it is closely related to the type species Thermotoga maratima, comparison of these two genomes will enable researchers to identify chromosomal segments that have undergone DNA rearrangements after the lineages diverged from a common ancestor. Lastly, current research has implicated T. neapolitana as a potentially viable source of hydrogen production. Current methods of hydrogen production are both costly and environmentally unfriendly; in a market in which hydrogen demands are expected to only increase, a new biological method for hydrogen production is very desirable. Sequencing T. neapolitana's genome will further these ends by allowing for deeper understanding of its nature.

Genome structure

Describe the size = 1800 Kb and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Does it have any plasmids? Are they important to the organism's lifestyle?

Cell structure and metabolism

Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.

Ecology

Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.

Pathology

As an extremely thermophilic eubacteria, Thermotoga neapolitana is not viable under the conditions that support most life. It therefore has no known diseases associated with it, and at present has not been found to be pathogenic.

Application to Biotechnology

Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?

Current Research

Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required

References

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen