Difference between revisions of "Verticillium"

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Zygomycota are arguably the most ecologically diverse group of fungi. Zygomycota are terrestrial organisms. They live close to plants, usually in soil and on decaying plant matter. Because they decompose soil, plant matter, and dung, they have a major role in the carbon cycle. Zygomycota are also pathogens for animals, amebas, plants, and other fungi. They form mutualistic symbiotic relationships with plants. In addition, they form commensalistic relationships with arthropods, inhabiting the gut of the organism and feeding on unused nutrients. However, Zygomycota can also be found in acquatic ecosystems.
While Zygomycota are largely known to humans for the negative economic impact they have on fruit, they also have some practical use. For example, certain species are used in Asian food fermentations. In addition, people have used their pathogenic powers to control insect pests. Although these are largely considered terrestrial organisms, certain species of Zygomycota also form relationships with animals. Zygomycetes are known to cause serious infections, articularly for diabetics and immunocompromised individuals. These infections can also occur as a result of major burns or other tramatic injury. One such disease is zygomycosis. This is a rare fungal disease that occurs in humans, and can even affect the fetus. It is potentially lethal. Diven et. al. (2004) note three clinical forms: cellulitis, disseminated, and gastrointestinal. The symptoms of the gastrointestinal form mirror those of another disease, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This often            makes diagnosis of the disease difficult. Thammayya (2005) wrote case study on a form of the diesease that is an upper respiratory tract infection with a wide variety of symptoms. Some of these include epistaxis, intranasal tumor, and nasal obstruction. Thammayya's case study noted            that it was the first report on this disease due to a species from North-eastern India. One research focus regarding the infections species is on how to control and treat them. The work of -Lamaignaire et. al. (2005) studied the affects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) on certain species of zygomycetes, and compared these results to those of interferon (IFN)- gamma and  anulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). It was found that while the PMNLs did have ome effect, the IFN-gammas and GM-CSFs were more affective in combatting the invasive organisms.
Zygomycota are not just restricted to the biological world. The modern dance company Pilobolus, founded in 1971, took its name from the fungus.
[[image:31-07-ZygomyceteLifeCyc-L.jpg|frame|center|Zygomycota life cycle. [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/surveybi04.html Survey of representatives of the major Kingdoms by Jay Pitocchelli.]]]
[[image:Splash.jpg|frame|center|[http://www.pilobolus.com/ Members of Pilobolus. Photo taken by John Kane.]]]
<h2>References. Updated May 19, 2005</h2>
<h2>References. Updated May 19, 2005</h2>

Revision as of 06:48, 11 March 2008

A Microbial Biorealm page on the phylum Verticillium


Higher order taxa

Division Eucaryota, Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Incertae sedis


Verticillium dahliae
Verticillium lecanii
Verticillium albo-atrum

Description and Significance

Genome Structure

Cell Structure and Metabolism


References. Updated May 19, 2005