Viral Biorealm

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Student Editors: Molly Schlemmer '08, Shrochis Karki '09, Daniel Barich '05, Ryotaro Tashiro '09
Note: Only about 30% of the viruses below have pages. New contributions are welcome!


Virus Classification: The Baltimore System


Group I. Double-stranded DNA viruses

Replicate using host or viral DNA polymerase.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Myoviridae
Siphoviridae
Tectiviridae

Non-enveloped animal viruses:

Adenoviridae
Papovaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
Iridoviridae

Enveloped animal viruses:

Herpesviridae
Poxviridae
Baculoviridae


Group II. Single-stranded DNA

Genome consists of (+) sense DNA. Requires a host DNA polymerase to generate the complementary strand. Non-enveloped.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Inoviridae

Archaeal virus:

Fusellovirus

Non-enveloped animal viruses:

Parvoviridae
Circoviridae

Non-enveloped plant viruses:

Geminiviridae


Group III. Double-stranded RNA

Requires viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; usually packages the polymerase before exiting host cell.

Non-segmented, enveloped, bacteriophage:

Cystoviridae

Segmented, non-enveloped, animal and plant hosts:

Reoviridae
Orthoreovirus
Rotavirus
Birnaviridae
Varicosaviridae


Group IV. (+) Sense single-stranded RNA viruses

Require viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to generate (-) template for progeny (+) genome. Usually non-segmented.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Leviviridae

Non-enveloped animal and plant viruses:

Bromoviridae
Picornaviridae
Aphthovirus
Enterovirus
Hepatovirus
Rhinovirus
Tobamoviridae
Potyviridae

Enveloped animal and plant viruses:

Coronaviridae
Flaviviridae
Hepacivirus
Togaviridae


Group V. (-) Sense single-stranded RNA viruses

Require viral RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase.

Segmented, enveloped:

Orthomyxoviridae

Nonsegmented, enveloped:

Filoviridae
Rhabdoviridae
Paramyxoviridae

Segmented (+/-) strand enveloped:

Arenaviridae
Bunyaviridae
Hantavirus


Group VI. RNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses (Retroviruses)

Require viral reverse transcriptase to generate DNA copy for integration into host chromosome. Package transcriptase before exiting host cell.

Retroviridae
Lentivirus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Group VII. DNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses (Pararetroviruses)

DNA is transcribed to RNA intermediate; reverse-transcribed to DNA. Infects plant cells, which have cytoplasmic reverse transcriptase; or package a viral reverse transcriptase.

Non-enveloped plant viruses:

Caulimoviridae
Badnaviridae

Enveloped animal viruses:

Hepadnaviridae
Orthohepadnavirus
Hepatitis B virus