A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Wolinella succinogenes
Higher order taxa
cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; delta/epsilon subdivisions; Epsilonproteobacteria; Campylobacterales; Helicobacteraceae; Wolinella
=Description and significance
Wolinella succinogenes belongs to th epsilon subclass of proteobacteria along with its close relatives Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter hepaticus, and Campylobacter jejuni. H.pyori and C. jejuni are of the groups Helicobacteraceae and Campylobacteraceae respectively which are harmful pathogens in humans and animals. H. pylori has been associated with ulcers and gastric cancer and C. jejuni has been found to cause the illness guillain-Barre syndrome. Although Wolinella succinogenes has been coined as a member of Helicobacteraceae, it exists phylogenetically as an intermediate between the two groups mentioned. It was originally isolated from cattle rumen where it inhabits and then was reisolated by other molecular methods. Although it is found to be a nonpathogenic host asociated organism, it contains many viral genes that are identical to those in throughout the rest of the Helicobacteraceae and Campylobacteraceae groups.(1)
Shotgun sequencing of Wolinella succinogenes revealed that it is composed of a circular chromosome of 2,110,355 base pairs. No plasmids were found (1). Having a larger genome content than relatives H. pylori, H. hepiticus,and C.jejuni, enables W.succinogenes to adapt to its bovine host rather its counterparts that occupy humans and rodents. "The close relatedness W.succinogenes has to the other three species, [H.pylori, H. hepiticus, C.jejuni], has been demonstrated using morphological, physiological, and molecular classification methods, and this reflected in their gene content as they share ~50% of their genes". (2) This large range of uniformity in genomic content along with W.succinogenes having a larger genomic content suggests that the four relatives stem from a larger ancestral genome. Flexibe genomic islands and islets have been observed in particular regions of the genome suggesting that recent gene transfer into W. succinogenes may have occured. Therefore, "The 29% larger genome of W. succinogenes codes for genes not found in any of its epsilon-proteobacterial relatives...seem[ing] likely that W. succinogenes may not be restricted to its ecological niche in the bovine rumen."(1)
Cell structure and metabolism
Wolinella succinogenes is a cylindrical shaped organism with a single flagella at one of its poles. It is a nonfermenting bacterium with fumurate as its sole carbon source. Therefore it undergoes anaerobic fumerate respiration. Wolinella succinogenes also contains protective enzymes that allow the bacteria to deal with reactive oxygen that may alter the cell.
Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.
How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
Application to Biotechnology
Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
Baar C et al. (2003)
Baar, C., Eppinger, M., Raddatz, G., Simon, J., Lanz, C., Klimmek, O., Nandakumar, R., Gross, R., Rosinus, A., Keller, H., Jagtap, P., Linke, B., Meyer, F., Lederer, H., and Schuster, S.C. "Complete genome sequence and analysis of Wolinella succinogenes." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2003) 100:11690-11695.
[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.
Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano