Yellowstone Hot Springs

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Yellowstone Hot Springs

What are hot springs?

Hot springs are geothermal springs that are substantially higher in temperature than the air temperature of the surrounding region. [1]

Creation of Hot Springs


Where is Yellowstone?

Yellowstone is a U.S. National Park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. It is also America's first national park; and is a home to a large variety of wildlife including grizzly bears, wolves, bison, and elk. Preserved within Yellowstone National Park are Old Faithful and a collection of the world's most extraordinary geysers and hot springs, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. [2]

Creation of Yellowstone Hot Springs


Adjacent Communities


What Microbes Live in Yellowstone Hot Springs?


Yellowstone Hot Spring Regions

Lower Geyser Basin
Mushroom Springs
Octopus Springs
Norris Geyser Basin
Green Dragon Springs
Beowulf Springs
Mammoth Hot Springs
Bath Lake

Hot Springs of Other Countries

    :Situated on the fault between the North American and European plates, Iceland is volcanically and geologically active with numerous geothermal features, such as hot springs, mud pots, geysers, and fumaroles. Geothermal hot springs in Iceland are divided into high temperature fields and low temperature fields. High temperature areas, which are only found on the active volcanic rift zones, have temperatures of at least 150°C with a heat source of magma chamber. The low temperature fields, found in the vicinity of Reykjavik, have temperatures of less than 150°C at a depth of one kilometer. These varying features provide habitats for different groups of thermophilic life. Some famous hot springs in Iceland include the one in Grindavik, and Europe’s highest flow rate hot spring Deildartunguhver, which has a flow rate of 180 liters/second emerging at 97°C. Some of the water is used for heating as energy sources.

Unique Facts

Current Research


[1] "hot spring." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 26 Aug. 2008.

[2] Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service). 01 Aug. 2008. National Park Service. 26 Aug. 2008.

Boyd, E. S., Jackson, R. A., Encarnacion, G., Zahn, J.A., Beard, T., Leavitt, W. D., Pi, Y., Zhang, C. L., Pearson, A., and Geesey G. G. Isolation. Characterization, and Ecology of Sulfur-Respiring Crenarchaea Inhabiting Acid-Sulfate-Chloride-Containing Geothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park. Appl. Environmental Microbiol. October 15, 2007; 73(20): 6669 - 6677
D'Imperio, S., Lehr, C. R., Breary, M., McDermott, T. R. Autecology of an Arsenite Chemolithotroph: Sulfide Constraints on Function and Distribution in a Geothermal Spring Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2007 73: 7067-7074
Kozubal, M., Macur, R. E., Korf, S., Taylor, W. P., Ackerman, G. G., Nagy, A., Inskeep, W. P. Isolation and Distribution of a Novel Iron-Oxidizing Crenarchaeon from Acidic Geothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2007 0: AEM.01200-07
White, D. E., Hutchinson, R. A. & Keith, T. E. C. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1456, 1–84 (1988)

Edited by [Yu-Chen Chiu, Ngoc Dinh, Jenny Lee, Christina Pham, Lucas Puttock, Naon Shin], students of Rachel Larsen