Bordetella bronchiseptica A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Bordetella bronchiseptica
Higher order taxa
Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]
Description and significance
Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why it is important enough to have its genome sequenced. Describe how and where it was isolated. Include a picture or two (with sources) if you can find them.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a minute, gram-negative rod-shaped coccobacilli about .5-1 micrometers in diameter and 5 micrometers in length. It may or may not have a flagella, dependent on environmental stimuli. Optimal growth temperature is 35-37° C.  Though it is commonly known to colonize in respiratory tracts of animals, it can also withstand surviving long-term in the environment, a trait that separates it from its most common relatives (noted below). It can also be cultured on various media and has demonstrated rapid growth on blood-free peptone agar. [1,4]
This aerobic species was first isolated and identified by Ferry in 1910 as Bacillus bronchicanis, recovered from respiratory tracts of dogs infected with distemper. Ferry also isolated it later (1912-1913) from the respiratory tracts of guinea pigs, monkeys, and other animals and subsequently changed the name to Bacillus bronchiseptica. The organism would go through at least four more name changes before Moreno-Lopez founded and described the genus Bordetella (After the first man to isolate the pertussis-causing organism, Jules Bordet). The name was then settled to be Bordetella bronchiseptica. [4,9] Bordetella bronchiseptica is mostly closely related to Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, both of which is believed to have risen originally from Bordtella bronchiseptica. It is believed that the species diverged 3.5 million years ago through decay of the Bordetella brochiseptica genome, as seen through a large-scale gene loss of the two subsequent species. [1,9] Due to its effect on mammals such as domestic pets (cats and dogs) and lab animals, Bordetella bronchiseptica has been closely studied. It has also had its genome sequenced, primarily to derive data in comparison to its relative Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough in humans. 
Bordetella bronchiseptica has a circular chromosome consisting of approximately 5,338,400 base pairs. It has one or more medium to large-sized plasmids dependent on the strain, and it is unknown at the time if these encode for anything useful. A small labile plasmid is found in most strains and is believed to be crucial in inferred antibiotic resistance. Of the circular chromosome, 68.07% of the composition are GC complements. It is believed to have 5,007 coding sequences with an average gene size of 978 base pairs. There are 3 rRNA operons as well as 55 tRNA operons. Analysis of the genome shows that there has been horizontal DNA transfer as apparent by the anomalous GC content. About 3,000 genes are shared by its closest relatives, B.pertussis and B. parapertussis. Its larger genome size compared to B. pertussis and B. parapertussis is believed to be crucial in coding for extra features suce as its capsule.
Cell structure and metabolism
Describe any interesting features and/or cell structures; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces.
Describe any interactions with other organisms (included eukaryotes), contributions to the environment, effect on environment, etc.
How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.
Application to Biotechnology
Does this organism produce any useful compounds or enzymes? What are they and how are they used?
Enter summaries of the most recent research here--at least three required
[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.
Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano