Difference between revisions of "Kushneria konosiri"

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== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
  
'''''LO: “Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.” '''''
+
Microbes have been an extremely important part of human history for thousands of years. They assist us in numerous daily functions and allow for life on Earth to run smoothly. One of their most important functions is in the production of food products, especially in those that are fermented. Fermented food products have been a staple in human diets due to their unique tastes, decreased perishability, and possible health benefits. An example of a popular fermented food product is daemi-jeot. This is a salt- fermented dish prepared commonly in Korea from Konosirus punctatus, a species of fish known as the dotted gizzard shad. This fish falls within the same family as sardines and anchovies (1). To make this traditional Korean dish, the fish is heavily salted and left to ferment. Like many other food products that undergo fermentation, daemi-jeot is able to be made due to the microbial interactions within its environment. However, bacterial populations found within this product are still being understood and discovered. Kushneria konosiri is the proposed name of a novel bacterial strain, strain X49T, discovered within this Korean fermented fish product (3). Kushneria konosiri is a halophilic, Gram-negative, and oval or rod-shaped organism. It is motile and contains a single flagellum that branches out from the cell. Metabolically, it is obligately aerobic. The optimum growth conditions for this bacterial strain are at 15–25 degrees Celsius, pH 5.0–7.0 and in the presence of 11–19 % (w/v) NaCl (3). Within its environment, its halophilic properties characteristic of members within its family (4) allow this microbe to survive and outcompete other microorganisms by withstanding the high salt concentrations surrounding it during the preparation of daemi-jeot. This is due to its development of several functional genes and its ability to perform carotenoid biosynthesis (2). With these adaptations this particular strain can survive in environments with salt concentrations up to 26% w/v NaCl (3). This bacterium thrives within this environment and could be a contributor to the fermentation process of daemi-jeot as it produces acids through a majority of its metabolic processes (3).
 
 
'''''LO: Because the true diversity of microbial life is largely unknown, its effects and potential benefits have not been fully explored.'''''
 
 
 
'''''LO: Mutations and horizontal gene transfer, with an immense variety of microenvironments, have selected for a huge diversity of microorganisms.'''''
 
 
 
* Tying the introduction to the learning objectives with detailed support, write a “hook” to convince the reader that YOUR microbe is interesting and make them want to read more! 
 
* In the introduction, briefly describe the habitat and the organism that is the topic of this page.
 
 
 
*Include:
 
** habitat 
 
** organism
 
** organism’s ecological significance (what metabolic processes do they carry out?)
 
** and the importance of the microbe in this environment (what ecological function does it perform?) 
 
 
 
*Image of the organism and description of the image.  
 
**Describe what kind of microscope took the image, the magnification, staining (if appropriate), the name of the organism, and highlight any key features illustrated in the image. Cite the source of the image and include the citation in the reference section.
 
''If you have obtained permission - include a photo of the organism under a microscope and/or growing in culture with figure legend and properly cited! If you have NOT obtained permission for a photo, please include a '''link''' to a photo of the organism. Include the information that would normally be in the figure legend when linking to the photo. ''
 
  
 
== Classification ==
 
== Classification ==

Revision as of 16:34, 17 March 2021

Introduction

Microbes have been an extremely important part of human history for thousands of years. They assist us in numerous daily functions and allow for life on Earth to run smoothly. One of their most important functions is in the production of food products, especially in those that are fermented. Fermented food products have been a staple in human diets due to their unique tastes, decreased perishability, and possible health benefits. An example of a popular fermented food product is daemi-jeot. This is a salt- fermented dish prepared commonly in Korea from Konosirus punctatus, a species of fish known as the dotted gizzard shad. This fish falls within the same family as sardines and anchovies (1). To make this traditional Korean dish, the fish is heavily salted and left to ferment. Like many other food products that undergo fermentation, daemi-jeot is able to be made due to the microbial interactions within its environment. However, bacterial populations found within this product are still being understood and discovered. Kushneria konosiri is the proposed name of a novel bacterial strain, strain X49T, discovered within this Korean fermented fish product (3). Kushneria konosiri is a halophilic, Gram-negative, and oval or rod-shaped organism. It is motile and contains a single flagellum that branches out from the cell. Metabolically, it is obligately aerobic. The optimum growth conditions for this bacterial strain are at 15–25 degrees Celsius, pH 5.0–7.0 and in the presence of 11–19 % (w/v) NaCl (3). Within its environment, its halophilic properties characteristic of members within its family (4) allow this microbe to survive and outcompete other microorganisms by withstanding the high salt concentrations surrounding it during the preparation of daemi-jeot. This is due to its development of several functional genes and its ability to perform carotenoid biosynthesis (2). With these adaptations this particular strain can survive in environments with salt concentrations up to 26% w/v NaCl (3). This bacterium thrives within this environment and could be a contributor to the fermentation process of daemi-jeot as it produces acids through a majority of its metabolic processes (3).

Classification

LO: Organisms are classified using a standard taxonomic rank.

  • Give the taxonomic rank in descending order of your organism.
Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species 
  • Provide a link to the following pages specific to your organism
    • NCBI: Taxonomy
    • JGI:GOLD

Phylogenetic Relatedness

LO: The evolutionary relatedness of organisms is best reflected in phylogenetic trees.

  • Cite and link out to peer-reviewed scientific literature that constructs phylogenetic trees using either 16S rRNA, multiple housekeeping genes, or whole genomes.
  • Describe the genes and phylogenetic methods used to create the tree.
  • What is the closest relative of your identified isolate according to the phylogenetic tree you used?
  • Include a link to a figure of the most recently constructed phylogenetic tree with proper citation and a detailed description of the tree.
  • In the description include: the gene(s)/genomes used and the phylogenetic method used.

Ecological Habitat

LO: Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.

LO: The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.

  • Describe its habitat and contributions to the environment. Note that an organism’s environment might be in or on another organism (e.g. bacteria in insect digestive system)
  • Include a link to a photo of a representative habitat with a figure caption that explains what kind of habitat this is and where the habitat is found.
  • Where the genus is most commonly found
    • If it is found in the environment, what macroscopic “field marks” does it have (color, smell, etc…)
    • If found in clinical samples – what is a diagnostic test?
  • Describe the physical and chemical abiotic characteristics of the environment
    • Temperature, pH, oxygen, etc..

Significance to the Environment

LO: “Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life” – how does your organism and your organisms’ metabolism support life on planet Earth?

LO: Human impact on the environment influences the evolution of microorganisms (e.g., emerging diseases and the selection of antibiotic resistance).

  • Describe how this microbe cycles nutrients in the environment. Note that an organism’s environment might be in or on another organism (e.g. bacteria in insect digestive system)
  • Include links to other MicrobeWiki pages on nutrient cycling or other reputable information on nutrient cycling geared toward the public (podcasts, blogs, gov or professional sites)
  • Are there human-induced changes to the environment that have influenced this microbe’s evolution, population numbers, or spread? (e.g. agriculture, clear-cutting/destruction of natural areas, greenhouse gasses, high nitrogen/phosphorous run-off, oil spills, overuse of antibiotics,...)

Ecological Lifestyle and Interactions

LO: “Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.”

LO: “Microorganisms are ubiquitious and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems."

LO: “Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.”

LO: “Most bacterial in nature live in biofilm communities.”

  • Describe the organism’s lifestyle, the organisms it interacts with, and how these interactions influence their environment.
  • Name and describe the kind of lifestyle of the organism (free-living? host-associated? obligate? Facultative? Parasitic? Mutualistic? Saprophytic?)
    • If the organism is mutualistic or pathogenic, state what host it most commonly associates with
    • If parasitic – what disease does it cause and what are the symptoms?
    • If mutualistic – what cost/benefit does it receive from the host and what cost/benefit does it give the host?
    • If saprophytic, what kinds of organisms does it feed upon?
    • Does the lifestyle of the organism changes with the host or context? If so, you might select one type of lifestyle to focus on, but then mention the other associations in a few sentences.
  • Describe key groups of microbes that your microbe interacts or are associated with important processes found in this environment.
    • Link to other MicrobeWiki pages or other reputable resources where possible.
  • Describe biological interactions that might take place in this environment, using as many sections/subsections as you require.
    • Are there important biological interactions that are important in this environment?
    • Do these interactions influence microbial populations and their activities?
    • How do these interactions influence other organisms?

Significance to Humans

LO: “Microorganisms can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral, and detrimental ways.”

LO: “Humans utilize (note: this is the correct way to use utilize!) and harness microorganisms and their products.”

  • Describe how this microbe has influenced human society now or in the past.
    • If your microbe is a pathogen, does the ecology and metabolism of the pathogen suggest how we can interrupt its interactions with the host?
  • If there is technology or product that this microbe is part of or could be a part of:
    • describe the technology
    • how this technology or product influences human lives.

Cell Structure

LO: Microbes have unique cell structures that can be targets for antibiotic, immunity, and phage infection.

LO: Microbes have specialized structures (e.g. flagella, endospores, and pili) that often confer critical capabilities.

Provide a physical and metabolic description of the organism. Are there special diagnostic media or methods to distinguish this microbe from close relatives?

  • Colony morphology (size, shape, texture, pigmentation, smell?, etc…)
  • Cell morphology
  • Gram type, if applicable
  • Motility
  • Any other important structures

Cell Metabolism

LO: “Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life.” LO: “Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.” LO: Because the true diversity of microbial life is largely unknown, its effects and potential benefits have not been fully explored.

Provide a physical and metabolic description of the organism. Are there special diagnostic media or methods to distinguish this microbe from close relatives?

  • Optimal abiotic growth conditions (temperature, salinity, oxygen, UV)
  • Carbon growth sources
  • Other metabolic abilities
  • Any other unique abilities (e.g toxin production, antibiotic resistance, etc...)

.

Genome Structure, Content, and/or Gene Expression

LO: Genome structure and content provide insight into a microbe's evolutionary history, ecological niche, and interactions with hosts and other microbes.

LO: Mutations and horizontal gene transfer, with an immense variety of microenvironments, have selected for a huge diversity of microorganisms.

LO: The regulation of gene expression is influenced by external and internal molecular cues and/or signals.

LO: Cell genomes can be manipulated to alter cell function.

LO: Genetic variations can impact microbial functions (e.g. in biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and drug resistance).

Metrics

  • Genome size
  • % GC
  • number of chromosomes and/or plasmids?
  • Circular or linear?
  • Other interesting features?

Relevance

  • Why was this organism sequenced?
  • Where was this organism sequenced?
  • Provide a direct link to the sequenced genome
  • What does the genome tell us about this organism? Ie. What new insights do we have after it is sequenced?
  • Give an example of an interesting feature found in the genome (LGT, mutations, plasmids, antibiotic resistance, toxins, etc...).
  • Explain why this feature is important for the microbes’ survival or success.

Interesting Feature

LO: Mutations and horizontal gene transfer, with an immense variety of microenvironments, have selected for a huge diversity of microorganisms.

LO: Human impact on the environment influences the evolution of microorganisms (e.g., emerging diseases and the selection of antibiotic resistance).

LO: Because the true diversity of microbial life is largely unknown, its effects and potential benefits have not been fully explored.

Describe in detail one particularly interesting aspect of your organism.

  • Why is this detail interesting?
  • How does it help the organism survive?
  • How does this interesting feature influence the larger environment or other microbes?
  • How can this interesting feature be helpful to humans?
  • In ~3 sentences propose WHY more research and WHAT kind of new research should be done on this organism and others like it. Connect this to the learning objective about the importance of microbial diversity
  • If you have created a graphical abstract, meme, image, etc... about this organism and its interesting feature, include it here. You can put a creative commons copywrite it to control how other people use it: https://creativecommons.org/about/cclicenses/

References

Each section must have at least 2 references to the primary peer-reviewed literature and at least 1 reference to a reference book like Bergey’s Manual or resources available on the NCBI bookshelf. Also, link out to reputable blogs like Small Things Considered (https://schaechter.asmblog.org/schaechter/), MostlyMicrobes (http://www.mostlymicrobes.com/), Sarah’s Little World (https://sarahs-world.blog/), professional websites American Society for Microbiology (https://asm.org/browse-asm), Microbiology Society (https://microbiologysociety.org/), and podcasts like the many by ASM (https://asm.org/podcasts), This Podcast Will Kill You (https://thispodcastwillkillyou.com/), etc… These should also be cited in the reference section.

Is this a peer-reviewed journal? Check this partial list: https://www.openacessjournal.com/peer-reviewed-journals

Convert your References section to Vancouver format: BibGuru (https://www.bibguru.com/), PMID2cite (https://www.pmid2cite.com/)

Example references: Vancouver citation

Journal

Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500. https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-50-2-489

Book

Surname Initials. Book title. Edition - if available: Publisher, place of publication; Year .

Books with Editors

Beers MH, Porter RS, Jones TV, Kaplan JL, Berkwits M, editors. The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. 18th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; 2006.

Authored chapter in edited publication;;

Glennon RA, Dukat M. Serotonin receptors and drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. In: Williams DA, Lemke TL, editors. Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.

Electronic

World Health Organization (WHO). Mortality country fact sheet 2006 [internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2006. Available from: www.who.int/whosis/mort_emro_pak_pakistan.pdf


Edited by <your name>, a @MicrobialTowson student of Dr. Anne M. Estes at Towson University. Template adapted from templates by Angela Kent, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and James W. Brown, Microbiology, NC State University.